Share This Article:

Attachment Relationships with Fathers and Mothers during Early Chilhood

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:85KB) PP. 254-260
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A038    3,632 Downloads   6,644 Views   Citations


The aim of this study was to analyze the nature of affective relationships between parents and children and to explore representational models in a sample of 111 children aged between 3 and 6, assessed using a projective measure. The results obtained confirm that, globally, security in the representation of attachment is higher with mothers. The figure of the father in the established hierarchy is secondary. The results also reveal a statistically significant relationship between children’s age and the attachment established with their fathers and mothers. The older the child, the greater the security manifested in their relations, and the younger the child, the greater the insecurity.

Cite this paper

Portu-Zapirain, N. (2013). Attachment Relationships with Fathers and Mothers during Early Chilhood. Psychology, 4, 254-260. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A038.


[1] Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1973). Some consideration regarding theory and Assessment relevant to attachments beyond infancy. In M. T. Greenberg, K. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention (pp. 463-488). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
[2] Ainsworth, M. D., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A Psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[3] Arranz, E., & Oliva, A. (2010). Desarrollo psicológico en las nuevas estructuras familiares. Madrid: Pirámide.
[4] Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss. Vol. I Attachment. London: Hogarth Press.
[5] Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and Loss. Vol III. Loss, sadness and depression. London: Hogarth Press.
[6] Bretherton, I. (2005). In pursuit of the internal working model construct and it relevance to attachment relationship. In K. E. Grossmann, & E. Waters (Eds.), Attachment from infancy to adulthood. The major longitudinal studies (pp. 13-47). London: Guilford Press.
[7] Bretherton, I. (2012). Fathers in attachment theory and research: A review. In L. A. Newland, H. S. Freeman, & D. D. Coyl (Eds.), Emerging Topics on Father Attachment. Considerations in theory, context and development (pp. 24-33). New York: Routledge.
[8] Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. A. (1999). Internal working models in Attachment Relationships: An construct revised. In J. Cassidy, & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, Research, and clinical applications (pp. 89-111). New York: The Guilford Press.
[9] Breteherton, I., Ridgeway, D., & Cassidy, J. (1990). Assessing internal working models of attachment relationships: An attachment story completion task for 3 years old. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention (pp.273-308). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
[10] Cahill, K. R., Deater-Deckard, K., & Pike, A. (2007). Theory of mind and the mother-child relationship. Social Development, 16, 45-56. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00371.x
[11] Cantero, M. J., & López, F. (2004). Factores predictores del periodo de adaptación escolar: La familia y las características de los menores cuando ingresan a los 3 anos. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 27, 43-61. doi:10.1174/021037004772902097
[12] Cassidy, J. (1988). Child-mother attachment and the self in six-year-old. Child Development, 59, 121-34. doi:10.2307/1130394
[13] Cassidy, J. (1994). Emotion regulation: Influences on attachment relationships. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 228-249. doi:10.2307/1166148
[14] Ciccheti, D., Cummings, E. M., Greenberg, M. T., & Marvin, R. (1990). An organizational perspective on attachment beyond infancy. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool year: Theory, research and intervention (pp. 3-49). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
[15] Cohn, D. A. (1990). Child-mother attachment of six-years-old and social competence at school. Child Development, 61, 152-162. doi:10.2307/1131055
[16] Cox, M. J., Owen, M. T., Henderson, V. K., & Margand, N. A. (1992). Prediction of infant-father and infant-mother attachment. Developmental Psychology, 28, 474-483. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.28.3.474
[17] Crittenden, P. M. (1992). The quality of attachment in the preschool. Development and Psychopatology, 4, 209-241. doi:10.1017/S0954579400000110
[18] Crittenden, P. M. (2002). Nuevas implicaciones clínicas de la teoría del apego. Valencia: Promolibro.
[19] Easterbrooks, M. A., & Goldberg, W. A. (1984). Toddler development in the family: Impact of father involvement and parenting characteristics. Child Development, 55, 740-752. doi:10.2307/1130126
[20] Eceiza, A., Ortiz, M. J., & Apodaca, P. (2011). Apego y afiliación: La seguridad del apego y las relaciones entre iguales en la infancia. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 34, 235-246. doi:10.1174/021037011795377610
[21] Fox, N. A., Kimmerly, N. L., & Schafer, W. D. (1991). Attachment to mother/attachment to father: A meta-analysis. Child Development, 62, 210-225.
[22] Geddes, H. (2010). El apego en el aula. Relaciones entre las primeras experiencias infantiles, el bienestar emocional y el rendimiento escolar. Barcelona: Grao.
[23] Horn, W. F. (2000). Fathering infants. In J. D. Osofsky, & H. E. Fizgerald (Eds.), Handbook of infant mental health. Vol. III: Parenting and child care (pp. 270-297). New York: Wiley.
[24] Howard, K. S. (2012). Paternal attachment, parenting beliefs and children’s attachment. In L. A. Newland, H. S. Freeman, & D. D. Coyl (Eds.), Emerging topics on father attachment. Considerations in theory, context and development (pp. 153-166). New York: Routledge.
[25] Koeyer, E. L. (2001). Peer acceptance, parent-child fantasy play interactions, and subjective experience of the self-in-relation: A study of 4-to 5-year-old children. URL (last checked 12 April 2006). http://igitur-arcchive.library.nn.ul/dissertations/1965654//UU
[26] Lamb, M. E. (1978). Qualitative aspects of mother and father-infant attachments. Infant Behavior and Development, 1, 265-275. doi:10.1016/S0163-6383(78)80038-1
[27] Lamb, M. E. (2004). The role of father in child development. Nueva York: John Wiley and Sons.
[28] López, F. (2010). Amores y desamores. Procesos de vinculación y desvinculación sexuales y afectivas. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva.
[29] Main, M., & Weston, D. R. (1981). The quality of the toddler’s relationship to mother and to father: Related to conflict behavior and the readiness to establish new relationships. Child Development, 52, 932-940. doi:10.2307/1129097
[30] Marvin, R. S., & Britner, P. A. (1999). Normative development. The ontogeny of attachment. In J. Cassidy, & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 44-67). New York: The Guilford Press.
[31] Oppenheim, D. (1997). The attachment doll-play interview for preschoolers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 20, 681-697. doi:10.1080/016502597385126
[32] Page, T., & Bretherton, I. (2001). Mother-and father-child attachment themes in the story completions of pre-schoolers from post-divorce families: Do they predict relationships with peers and teachers. Attachment & Human Development, 3, 1-29.
[33] Portu, N. (2011). El apego con el padre y la madre en la segunda infancia y su relación con la autoestima. Bilbao: UPV/EHU.
[34] Rozenel, V. (2006). Los modelos operativos internos dentro de la Teoría del Apego. Aperturas psicoanalíticas. Revista Internacional de Psicoanálisis, 23, 1-26.
[35] Schneider, B. H. (2006). Cuánta estabilidad en los estilos de apego está implícita en la teoría de Bowlby: Comentario al artículo de Félix López. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 29, 25-30.
[36] Sroufe, L. A. (2000). Desarrollo emocional. La organización de la vida emocional en los primeros anos. Oxford: University Press.
[37] Thompson, R. A. (1999). Early attachment and later development. In J. Cassidy, & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications (pp. 265-286). New York: The Guilford Press.
[38] Thompson, R. A. & Meyer, S. (2007). The socialization of emotion regulation in the family. In J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 249-268). Nueva York: The Guilford Press.
[39] Turner, P. J. (1993). Attachment to mother and behaviour with adults in preschool. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11, 75-89. doi:10.1111/j.2044-835X.1993.tb00589.x
[40] Shouldice, A., & Stevenson-Hinde, J. (1992). Coping with security distress: The separation anxiety test and attachment classification at 4.5 years. Journal of Child Psychology and Allied Disciplines, 33, 331-348. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1992.tb00870.x
[41] Solomon, J., & George, C. (1999) The measurement of attachment security in infancy and childhood. In J. Cassidy, & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications (pp. 287-318). New York: The Guilford Press.
[42] Verschueren, K., & Marcoen, A. (1994). Attachment story completion task classification system. Unpublished Manual, Belgium: University of Louvain.
[43] Verschueren, K., & Marcoen, A. (1999). Representation of self and socioemotional competence in kindergartners: Differential and combined effects of attachment to mother and to father. Child Development, 70, 183-201. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00014
[44] Verschueren, K., & Marcoen, A. (2005). Perceived security of attachment to mother and father: Developmental differences and relations to elf-worth and peer relationships at school. In K. A. Kerns, & R. A. Richardson (Eds.), Attachment in middle childhood (pp. 212-230). New York: The Guilford Press.
[45] Weinfeld, N. S., Soufre L. A., & Egeland, B. (2000). Attachment from infancy to early adulthood in a high-risk sample: Continuity, discontinuity, and their correlates. Child Development, 71, 695-702. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00178

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.