Share This Article:

Bright light transmits through the brain: Measurement of photon emissions and frequency-dependent modulation of spectral electroencephalographic power

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:365KB) PP. 10-16
DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2013.31002    3,980 Downloads   8,055 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Photons are emitted during brain activity and when applied externally alter its functional connectivity during the resting state. In the present study we applied constant or time varying light (~10,000 lux) stimuli to one side of the skull and measured by photomultiplier tubes the photon density emitted from the opposite side of the skull along its two horizontal planes. Global quantitative electroencephalographic activity (QEEG) was recorded simultaneously. Reliable increases of ~2.5 × 10-11 W· m-2 during either constant or specific flash frequencies between 3 and 7 Hz as well as enhanced QEEG power in the theta and low beta range were measured. According to source localization by Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) the right parahippocampal region was particularly enhanced. Calculations employing known quantitative values for permeability and permittivity of brain tissue were consistent with this frequency band. Estimated concentrations of protons from hydronium ions indicated a Grotthuss chain-like process for moving photon energy through the cerebral medium may have mediated the distance-dependent latency. The results suggest that external light is transmitted through cerebral tissue, can be measured externally, and significantly affects functional connectivity. The findings support the conclusions of Starck et al. (World Journal Neuroscience, 2012).

Cite this paper

Persinger, M. , Dotta, B. and Saroka, K. (2013) Bright light transmits through the brain: Measurement of photon emissions and frequency-dependent modulation of spectral electroencephalographic power. World Journal of Neuroscience, 3, 10-16. doi: 10.4236/wjns.2013.31002.

References

[1] Popp, F.A., Li, K.H., Mei, W.P., Galle, M. and Neuohr, R. (1988) Physical aspects of biophotons. Experientia, 44, 567-585. doi:10.1007/BF01953305
[2] Popp, F.A. (1979) Electromagnetic information. Urban and Schwarzberg, New York.
[3] Isojima, Y., Isoshima, T., Nagai, K., Kikuchi, K. and Nakagawa, H. (1995) Ultraweak bioluminescence detected from rat hippocampal slices. NeuroReports, 6, 685-660. doi:10.1097/00001756-199503000-00018
[4] Wang, C., Bokkon, I, Dai, J. and Antal, I. (2011) First experimental demonstration of spontaneous and visible light-induced photon emission from rat eyes with particular emphasis on their roles in discrete noise and retinal phosphenes. Brain Research, 1369, 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.10.077
[5] Bokkon, I., Salari, V., Tuszynski, J.A. and Antal, I. (2010) Estimated numbers of biophotons involved in the visual perception of a single-object image: Biophoton intensity can be considerably higher inside cells than outside. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, 100, 160-166. doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2010.06.001
[6] Dotta, B.T., Saroka, K.S. and Persinger, M.A. (2012). Increased photon emission from the head while imaging light in the dark is correlated with changes in electroencephalographic power: Support for Bokkon’s biophoton hypothesis. Neuroscience Letters, 513, 151-154. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2012.02.021
[7] Dotta, B.T., Buckner, C.A., Lafrenie, R.M. and Persinger, M.A. (2011) Photon emissions from human brain and cell culture exposed to distally rotating magnetic fields shared by separate light-stimulated brains and cells. Brain Research, 1388, 77-88. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.03.001
[8] Weaver, D.R. and Reppert, S.M. (1989) Direct in utero perception of light by the mammalian fetus. Developmental Brain Research, 47, 151-155. doi:10.1016/0165-3806(89)90119-3
[9] Taartelin, E.F., Bellingham, J. Hankins, M.W., Foster, R. G. and Lucas, R.J. (2003) Neuropsin (OPN5): A novel opsin identified in mammalian neural tissue. FEBS Letters, 554, 410-416. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(03)01212-2
[10] Wade, P.D., Taylor, J. and Siekevitz, P. (1988) Mammalian cerebral cortical tissue responds to low-intensity visible light. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 85, 9322-9326. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.23.9322
[11] Nieto, P.S., Valdez, D.J., Acosta-Rodriquez, V.A. and Guido, M.E. (2011) Expression of novel opsins and intrinsic light responses in the mammalian retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. Presence of OPN5 in the rat retina. PLoS One, 5, e26147.
[12] Dotta, B.T., Buckner, C.A., Cameron, D., Lafrenie, R.F. and Persinger, M.A. (2011) Biophoton emissions from cell cultures: Biochemical evidence for the plasma membrane as the primary source. General Physiology and Biophysics, 30, 301-309.
[13] Hunter, M.D., Mulligan, B.P., Dotta, B.T., Saroka, K.S., Lavallee, C.F., Koren, S.A. and Persinger, M.A. (2010) Cerebral dynamics and discrete energy changes in the personal physical environment during intuitive-like states and perceptions. Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research, 1, 1179-1197.
[14] Persinger, M.A. and Saroka, K.S. (2012) Protracted para-hippocampal activity associated with Sean Harribance. International Journal of Yoga, 5, 140-145. doi:10.4103/0973-6131.98238
[15] Mulert, C., Jager, L., Schmitt, R., Bussfeld, P., Pogarell, O., Moller, H.J., Juckel, G. and Hegerl, U. (2004) Integration of fMRI and simultaneous EEG: Towards a comprehensive understanding of localization and time course of brain activity in target detection. NeuroImage, 22, 83-94. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.10.051
[16] Decoursey, T.E. (2003) Voltage-gated proton channels and other proton transfer pathways. Physiology Reviews, 83, 475-579.
[17] Lehmann, D., Grass, P. and Meier, B. (1995) Spontaneous conscious overt cognition states and brain electric spectral states in canonical correlations. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 19, 41-52. doi:10.1016/0167-8760(94)00072-M
[18] Tsang, E.W., Koren, S.A. and Persinger, M.A. (2004) Power increases within the gamma range over the frontal and occipital regions during acute exposures to cerebrally counterclockwise rotating magnetic fields with specific derivatives of change. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114, 1183-1193. doi:10.1080/00207450490475643
[19] Stark, T., Nissila, J., Aunio, A., Abou-Elseoud, A., Remes, J., Nikkinen, J., Timonen, M., Takala, T., Tervonen, O. and Kiviniemi, V. (2012) Stimulating brain tissue with bright light alters functional connectivity in brain at the resting state. World Journal of Neuroscience, 2, 81-90. doi:10.4236/wjns.2012.22012
[20] Rushworth, M.F., Behrens, T.E. and Johansen-Berg, H. (2006) Connection patterns distinguish 3 regions of human parietal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 1418-1430. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhj079
[21] Angel, A. and Klink, R. (1993) Differential responsiveness of stellate and pyramidal-like cells of the medial entorhinal cortex Layer II. Journal of Neurophysiology, 70, 128-143.
[22] Olivares, F.P. and Schuknencht, H.F. (1979) Width of the internal auditory canal in histological studies. Annals of Otologolgy, Rhinology and Larynegology, 198, 316-323.
[23] Persinger, M.A. (2010) 10 - 20 Joules as a neuromolecular quantum in medicinal chemistry: An alternative approach to myriad molecular pathways? Current Medicinal Chemistry, 17, 3094-3098. doi:10.2174/092986710791959701
[24] Sun, Y., Wang, C. and Dai, J. (2010) Biophotons as neural communication signals demonstrated by in situ biophoton autography. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, 9, 315-322.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.