JBBS> Vol.2 No.4, November 2012

Neurobehavioral and Hemodynamic Evaluation of Cognitive Shifting in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:691KB) Full-Text HTML PP. 463-470   DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.24054

ABSTRACT

The restrictive, stereotyped behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is considered to be related to deficits in execu- tive function. In particular, cognitive shifting in executive function is deeply related to stereotyped behavior in ASD. Previous investigations have clarified that the lateral prefrontal cortex is involved in cognitive shifting when flexible changes in attention were needed. However, a few studies have revealed a direct association between cognitive shifting tasks and lateral prefrontal cortex activity in children with ASD. We examined cognitive shifting in 7- to 12-year-old children with ASD and typically developing children using the dimensional change card sort task. In addition, using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined prefrontal brain activity in conjunction with cognitive shifting. The autistic children provided fewer correct answers and slower reaction times in the task than typically developing children. Fur- thermore, the autistic children displayed a decline in right lateral prefrontal cortex activity during the task compared with typically developing children. In addition, a negative correlation was observed between the severity of autism and brain activity during the task. These results suggest that the activity and physiological indices used in this study may be useful for identifying the symptoms of ASD and discriminating ASD from other disabilities.

KEYWORDS


Cite this paper

A. Yasumura, N. Kokubo, H. Yamamoto, Y. Yasumura, Y. Moriguchi, E. Nakagawa, M. Inagaki and K. Hiraki, "Neurobehavioral and Hemodynamic Evaluation of Cognitive Shifting in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder," Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 463-470. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.24054.

References

[1] American Psychiatric Association, “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,” 4th Edition, American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC, 2000.
[2] B. A. Boyd, M. McBee, T. Holtzclaw, G. T. Baranek and J. W. Bodfish, “Relationships among Repetitive Behaviors, Sensory Features, and Executive Functions in High Functioning Autism,” Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2009, pp. 959-966. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2009.05.003
[3] F. Happe and A. Ronald, “The ‘Fractionable Autism Triad’: A Review of Evidence from Behavioural, Genetic, Cognitive and Neural Research,” Neuropsychology Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, 2008, pp. 287-304. doi:10.1007/s11065-008-9076-8
[4] E. L. Hill, “Executive Dysfunction in Autism,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 8, No.1, 2004, pp. 26-32. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2003.11.003
[5] B. F. Pennington and S. Ozonoff, “Executive Functions and Developmental Psychopathology,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1996, pp. 51-87. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01380.x
[6] H. M. Geurts, S. Vertie, J. Oosterlaan, H. Roeyers and J. A. Sergeant, “How Specific Are Executive Functioning Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism?” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2004, pp. 836-854. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00276.x
[7] F. Happe, R. Booth, R. Charlton and C. Hughes, “Executive Function Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Profiles across Domains and Ages,” Brain and Cognition, Vol. 61, 2006, No.1, pp. 25-39. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2006.03.004
[8] B. R. Lopez, A. J. Lincoln, S. Ozonoff and Z. Lai, “Examining the Relationship between Executive Functions and Restricted, Repetitive Symptoms of Autistic Disorder,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2005, pp. 445-460. doi:10.1007/s10803-005-5035-x
[9] S. Ozonoff and J. Jensen, “Brief Report: Specific Executive Function Profiles in Three Neurodevelopmental Disorders,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1999, pp. 171-177. doi:10.1023/A:1023052913110
[10] S. Ozonoff, D. L. Strayer, W. M. McMahon and F. Filloux, “Executive Function Abilities in Autism and Tourette Syndrome: An Information Processing Approach,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, Vol. 35, No. 6, 1994, pp. 1015-1032. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01807.x
[11] ,H. M. Geurts, S. Verte, J. Oosterlaan, H. Roeyers and J. A. Sergeant, “How Specific Are Executive Functioning Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism?” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2004, pp. 836-854. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00276.x
[12] P. D. Zelazo, “The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS): A Method of Assessing Executive Function in Children,” Nature Protocols, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2006, pp. 297-301. doi:10.1038/nprot.2006.46
[13] Y. Moriguchi and K. Hiraki, “NEURAL ORIGIN of Cognitive Shifting in Young Children,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 106, No. 14, 2009, pp. 6017-6021. doi:10.1073/pnas.0809747106
[14] G. Matsuda and K. Hiraki, “Sustained Decrease in Oxygenated Hemoglobin during Video Games in the Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex: A NIRS Study of Children,” Neuroimage, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2006, pp. 706-711. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.08.019
[15] S. Shimada and K. Hiraki, “Infant’s Brain Responses to Live and Televised Action,” Neuroimage, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2006, pp. 930-939. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.03.044
[16] J. Raven, “Coloured Progressive Matrices: Sets A, Ab, B,” OPP Ltd., Oxford, 1976.
[17] C. PARS, “Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale [in Japanese],” Spectrum-Shuppansha, Tokyo, 2008.
[18] Y. Kita, A. Gunji, Y. Inoue, T. Goto, K. Sakihara, et al., “Self-Face Recognition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study,” Brain Development, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2011, pp. 494-503. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2010.11.007
[19] G. S. Dichter, K. J. Radonovich, L. M. Turner-Brown, K. S. L. Lam, T. N. Holtzclaw, et al., “Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders on the Dimension- Change Card Sort Task,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2010, pp. 448-456. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0886-1
[20] L. Van Eylen, B. Boets, J. Steyaert, K. Evers, J. Wagemans, et al., “Cognitive Flexibility in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Explaining the Inconsistencies?” Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2011, pp. 1390- 1401. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2011.01.025
[21] T. D. Watson, A. Azizian and N. K. Squires, “Eventrelated Potential Correlates of Extradimensional and Intradimensional Set-Shifts in a Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test,” Brain Research, Vol. 1092, No. 1, 2006, pp. 138-151. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.03.098
[22] M. M. Kjelgaard and H. Tager-Flusberg, “An Investigation of Language Impairment in Autism: Implications for Genetic Subgroups,” Language and Cognitive Processes, Vol. 16, No. 2-3, 2001, pp. 287-308. doi:10.1080/01690960042000058
[23] D. Frye, P. D. Zelazo and T. Palfai, “Theory of Mind and Rule-Based Reasoning,” Cognitive Development, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1995, pp. 483-527. doi:10.1016/0885-2014(95)90024-1
[24] J Russell, “Agency: Its Role in Mental Development?” 1st Edition, Psychology Press, Hove, 1996.
[25] P. D. Zelazo, S. Jacques, J. A. Burack and D. Frye, “The Relation between Theory of Mind and Rule Use: Evidence from Persons with Autism-Spectrum Disorders,” Infant and Child Development, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2002, pp. 171-195. doi:10.1002/icd.304
[26] S. Baron-Cohen, A. M. Leslie and U. Frith, “Does the Autistic Child Have a ‘Theory of Mind’?” Cognition, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1985, pp. 37-46. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(85)90022-8
[27] K. M. Shafritz, G. S. Dichter, G. T. Baranek and A. Belger, “The Neural Circuitry Mediating Shifts in Behavioral Response and Cognitive Set in Autism,” Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 63, No. 10, 2008, pp. 974-980. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.06.028
[28] M. Sanefuji, Y. Takada, N. Kimura, H. Torisu, R. Kira, Y. Ishizaki and T. Hara, “Strategy in Short-Term Memory for Pictures in Childhood: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study,” Neuroimage, Vol. 54, No. 3, 2011, pp. 2394-2400. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.090
[29] M. L. Schroeter, S. Zysset, M. Wahl and D. Y. von Cramon, “Prefrontal Activation Due to Stroop Interference Increases during Development—An Event-Related fNIRS Study,” Neuroimage, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2004, pp. 1317-1325. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.001
[30] S. Sumitani, T. Tanaka, S. Y. Tayoshi, K. Ota, N. Kameoka, et al., “Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex during the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test as Measured by Multichannel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Neuropsychobiology, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2006, pp. 70-76. doi:10.1159/000091722
[31] S. Tsujimoto, T. Yamamoto, H. Kawaguchi, H. Koizumi and T. Sawaguchi, “Prefrontal Cortical Activation Associated with Working Memory in Adults and Preschool Children: An Event-Related Optical Topography Study,” Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 14, No. 7, 2004, pp. 703-712. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhh030
[32] Y. Otsuka, E. Nakato, S. Kanazawa, M. K. Yamaguchi, S. Watanabe, et al., “Neural Activation to Upright and Inverted Faces in Infants Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy,” Neuroimage, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2007, pp. 399- 406. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.08.013

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.