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Respiratory evaluation of patients requiring ventilator support due to acute respiratory failure

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DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.223049    4,378 Downloads   7,096 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This review, based on relevant published evidence and the authors` clinical experience, presents how to evaluate a patient with acute respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. This patient must be carefully evaluated by nurses, physiotherapists, respiratory care practitioners and physicians regarding the elucidation of the cause of the acute episode of respiratory failure by means of physical examination with the measurement of respiratory parameters and assessment of arterial blood gases analysis to make a correct respiratory diagnosis. After the initial evaluation, the patient must quickly receive adequate oxygen and ventilatory support that has to be carefully monitored until its discontinuation. When available, a noninvasive ventilation trial must be done in patients presenting desaturation during oxygen mask and or PaCO2 retention, especially in cases of cardiogenic pulmonary edema and severe exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In cases of noninvasive ventilation trial-failure, endotracheal intubation and invasive protective mechanical ventilation must be promptly initiated. In severe ARDS patients, low tidal ventilation, higher PEEP levels, prone positioning and recruitment maneuvers with adequate PEEP titration should be used. Recently, new modes of ventilation should allow a better patient-ventilator interaction or synchrony permitting a sufficient unloading of respiratory muscles and increase patient comfort. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be considered for a trial for early extubation to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in centers with extensive experience in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.

Cite this paper

Barbas, C. , Lopes, G. , Vieira, D. , Couto, L. , Dourado, L. and Caser, E. (2012) Respiratory evaluation of patients requiring ventilator support due to acute respiratory failure. Open Journal of Nursing, 2, 336-340. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2012.223049.

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