Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits of Vegetables: A Review

Download Download as PDF (Size:333KB)  HTML   XML  PP. 1354-1374  
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.310179    7,925 Downloads   12,328 Views   Citations


Vegetables are considered essential for well-balanced diets since they supply vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Each vegetable group contains an unique combination and amount of these phytonutriceuticals, which distinguishes them from other groups and vegetables whithin their own group. In the daily diet vegetables have been strongly associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Some phytochemicals of vegetables are strong antioxidants and are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease by protecting against free radical damage, by modifying metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, or even by influencing processes that alter the course of tumor cells. All the vegetables may offer protection to humans against chronic diseases. Nutrition is both a quantity and a quality issue, and vegetables in all their many forms ensure an adequate intake of most vitamins and nutrients, dietary fibers, and phytochemicals which can bring a much-needed measure of balance back to diets contributing to solve many of these nutrition problems. The promotion of healthy vegetable products has coincided with a surging consumer interested in the healthy functionality of food. Because each vegetable contains a unique combination of phytonutriceuticals, a great diversity of vegetables should be eaten to ensure that individual’s diet includes a combination of phytonutriceuticals and to get all the health benefits. This article make a review and discusses the nutritional quality and health benefits of the major groups of vegetables. More interdisciplinary work is required that involves nutritional and food scientists as well as others from biomedical fields to ascertain the thrue function of specific phytonutriceuticals.

Cite this paper

J. Dias, "Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits of Vegetables: A Review," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 10, 2012, pp. 1354-1374. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.310179.


[1] B. Quebedeaux and H. M. Eisa, “Horticulture and Human Health: Contributions of Fruits and Vegetables,” Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium Horticulture and Human Health HortScience, Vol. 25, 1990, pp. 1473-1532.
[2] W. Craig and L. Beck, “Phytochemicals: Health Protective Effects,” Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, Vol. 60, No. 2, 1999, pp. 78-84.
[3] M. J. Wargovich, “Anticancer Properties of Fruits and Vegetables,” Hort Science, Vol. 35, 2000, pp. 573-575.
[4] J. S. Dias and E. Ryder, “World Vegetable Industry: Production, Breeding, Trends,” Hort Review, Vol. 38, 2011, pp. 299-356.
[5] S. Southon, “Increased Fruit and Vegetable Consumption within the EU: Potential Health Benefits,” Food Research International, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 2000, pp. 211-217. doi:10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00036-3
[6] E. Herrera, R. Jimenez, O. I. Aruoma, S. Hercberg, I. Sanchez-Garcia and C. Fraga, “Aspects of Antioxidant Foods and Supplements in Health and Disease,” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 67, No. 1, 2009, pp. S140-S144. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00177.x
[7] R. L. Prior and G. Cao, “Antioxidant Phytochemicals in Fruit and Vegetables, Diet and Health Implications,” HortScience, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2000, pp. 588-592.
[8] D. Hyson, “The Health Benefits of Fruit and Vegetables: A Scientific Overview for Health Professionals,” Produce for Better Health Foundation, Wilmington DE, 2002.
[9] G. Golberg, “Plants: Diet and Health,” In: G. Golberg, Ed., The Report of a British Nutrition Foundation Task Force, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 2003, pp. 152-163.
[10] IFAVA, “Fruit, Vegetables and Health: A Scientific Overview,” 2006.
[11] J. D. H. Keatinge, F. Waliyar, R. H. Jammadass, A. Moustafa, M. Andrade, P. Drechsel, J. D’A. Hughes, P. Kardivel and K. Luther, “Re-Learning Old Lessons for the Future of Food: By Bread Alone No Longer—Diversifying Diets with Fruit and Vegetables,” Crop Science, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2010, pp. 51-62. doi:10.2135/cropsci2009.09.0528
[12] P. Mullie and P. Clarys, “Association between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Knowledge and Lifestyle,” Food and Nutrition Science, Vol. 2, No. 10, 2011, pp. 1048-1053. doi:10.4236/fns.2011.210140
[13] J. S. Dias, “World Importance, Marketing and Trading of Vegetables,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 921, 2011, pp. 153-169.
[14] S. J. Kays. and J. S. Dias, “Common Names of Commercially Cultivated Vegetables of the World in 15 Languages,” Economic Botany, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1995, pp. 115-152. doi:10.1007/BF02862917
[15] S. J. Kays, “Cultivated Vegetables of the World: A Multilingual Onomasticon,” Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2011. doi:10.3920/978-90-8686-720-2
[16] Monsanto, “Supplemental Toolkit for Investors,” Monsanto, 2011.
[17] S. E. Nielsen, J. F. Young, B. Daneshvar, S. T. Lauriden, P. Knuthsen, B. Sandrstromand and L. O. Dragsted, “Effect of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) Intake on Urinary Apigenin Excretion, Blood Antioxidant Enzymes and Biomarkers for Oxidative Stress in Human Subjects,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 6, 1999, pp. 447-455.
[18] L. S. Ching and S. Mohamed, “Alpha-Tocopherol Content of 62 Edible Tropical Plants,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 6, 2001, pp. 3101-3105. doi:10.1021/jf000891u
[19] M. A. Lila, “Anthocyanins and Human Health: An in Vitro Investigative Approach,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Vol. 2004, No. 5, 2004, pp. 306-313. doi:10.1155/S111072430440401X
[20] M. Horbowicz, R. Kosson, A. Grzesiuk and H. D. Bski, “Anthocyanins of Fruits and Vegetables—Their Occurrence Analysis and Role in Human Nutrition,” Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2008, pp. 5-22. doi:10.2478/v10032-008-0001-8
[21] P. W. Simon and I. L. Goldman, “Carrot,” In: R. J. Sing, Ed., Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop improvement, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2007, pp. 497-516.
[22] A. Crozier, J. Burns, A. Aziz, A. J. Stewart, H. S. Rabiasz, G. I. Jenkins, C. A. Edwards and M. E. J. Lean, “Antioxidant Flavonols from Fruits, Vegetables and Beverages: Measurements and Bioavailability,” Biological Research, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2000, pp. 79-88. doi:10.4067/S0716-97602000000200007
[23] D. Almeida, “Manual de Culturas Hortícolas,” Vol. 1, Editorial Presenca, Lisboa, 2006.
[24] N. P. S. Dhillon, A. J. Monforte, M. Pitrat, S. Pandey, P. K. Singh, K. R. Reitsma, J. Garcia-Mas, A. Sharma and J. M. McCreight, “Melon Landraces of India: Contributions and Importance,” Plant Breeding Reviews, Vol. 35, 2012, pp. 85-150.
[25] Y. Burger, Y. Yeselson, U. Saar, H. S. Paris, N. Katzir, Y. Tadmor and A. A. Schaffer, “Screening of Melon (Cucumis melo) Germplasm for Consistently High Sucrose Content and for High Ascorbic Acid Content,” In: A. Lebeda and H. S. Paris, Eds., Progress in Cucurbit Genetics and Breeding Research, Palacky University, Olomouc, 2004, pp. 151-155.
[26] K. M. Crosby, G. E. Lester and D. I. Leskovar, “Genetic Variation for Beneficial Phytochemical Levels in Melons (Cucumis melo),” In: G. J. Holmes, Ed., Cucurbitaceae 2006, Universal Press, Raleigh, 2006, pp. 70-76.
[27] J. Scott, F. Releille and J. Fletcher, “Folic Acid and Folates: The Feasibility for Nutricional Enhancement in Plant Foods,” Journal of the Science and Food Agriculture, Vol. 80, No. 7, 2000, pp. 795-824. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000515)80:7<795::AID-JSFA599>3.0.CO;2-K
[28] T. He, C. Y. Huang, H. Chen and Y. H. Hou, “Effects of Spinach Powder Fat-Soluble Extract on Proliferation of Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cell,” Biomedical Environmental Science, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1999, pp. 247-252.
[29] D. Prakash, P. Nath and M. Pal, “Composition, Variation of Nutritional Contents in Leaves, Seed Protein, Fat and Fatty Acid Profile of Chenopodium Species,” Journal of the Science and Food Agriculture, Vol. 62, No. 2, 1993, pp. 203-205. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740620214
[30] R. Sienera, “Oxalate Contents of Species of the Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae Families,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 98, No. 2, 2006, pp. 220-224. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.059
[31] S. K. Misra, “Anti-Nutritive Bioactive Compounds Present in Unconventional Pulses and Legumes,” The Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, Vol. 3, 2012, pp. 586-597.
[32] A. C. Mallillin, T. P. Trinidad, R. Raterta, K. Dagbay and A. S. Loyola, “Dietary Fibre and Fermentability Characteristics of Root Crops and Legumes,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 100, No. 3, 2008, pp. 485-488. doi:10.1017/S000711450891151X
[33] T. P. Trinidad, A. C. Mallillin, A. S. Loyola, R. S. Sagum and R. R. Encabo, “The Potential Health Benefits of Legumes as a Good Source of Dietary Fibre,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 103, No. 4, 2010, pp. 569-574. doi:10.1017/S0007114509992157
[34] World Cancer Research Fund, “Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective,” American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington DC, 1997.
[35] D. T. H. Verhoeven, R. A. Goldbohm, G. Van Poppel, H. Verhagen and P. A. Van Den Brandt, “Epidemiological Studies on Brassica Vegetables and Cancer Risk,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 5, No. 9, 1996, pp. 733-751.
[36] C. B. Ambrosone, S. E. McCann, J. L. Freudenheim, J. R. Marshall, Y. Zhang and P. G. Shields, “Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women is Inversely Associated with Consumption of Broccoli: A Source of Isothiocyanates, but Is Not Modified by GST Genotype,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 134, No. 5, 2004, pp. 1134-1138,
[37] P. Brennan, C. C. Hsu, N. Moullan, N. Szeszenia-Dabrowska, J. Lissowska, D. Zaridze, P. Rudnai, E. Fabianova, D. Mates and V. Benckoet, “Effect of Cruciferous Vegetables on Lung Cancer in Patients Stratified by Genetic Status: A Mendelian Randomisation Approach,” Lancet, Vol. 366, No. 9496, 2005, pp. 1558-1560. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67628-3
[38] V. A. Kirsh, U. Peters, S. T. Mayne, A. F. Subar, N. Chatterjee, C. C. Johnson and R. B. Hayes, “Prospective Study of Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Prostate Cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 99, No. 15, 2007, pp. 1200-1209. doi:10.1093/jnci/djm065
[39] M. Traka, “Broccoli Consumption Interferes with Prostate Cancer Progression: Mechanisms of Action,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 867, No. 5, 2010, pp. 19-25.
[40] L. Kohlmeier and L. Su, “Cruciferous Vegetables Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Meta-Analysis of the Epidemiological Evidence,” FSEB Journal, Vol. 11, 1997, pp. 369.
[41] A. Seow, J. M. Yuan, C. L. Sun, D. Van Den Berg, H. P. Lee and M. C. Yu, “Dietary Isothiocyanates, Glutathione S-Transferase Polymorphisms and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 23, No. 12, 2002, pp. 2055-2061. doi:10.1093/carcin/23.12.2055
[42] S. J. London, J. M. Yuan, F. L. Chung, Y. T. Gao, G. A. Coetzee, R. K. Ross and M. C. Yu, “Isothiocyanates, Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 Polymorphisms, and Lung-Cancer Risk: A Propective Study of Men in Shanghai, China,” Lancet, Vol. 356, No. 9231, 2000, pp. 724-729. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02631-3
[43] J. H. Fowke, F. L. Chung, F. Jin, D. Qi, Q. Cai, C. Conaway, J. R. Cheng, X. O. Shu, Y. T. Gao and W. Zheng, “Urinary Isothiocyanate Levels, Brassica, and Human Breast Cancer,” Cancer Research, Vol. 63, No. 14, 2003, pp. 3980-3986.
[44] M. A. Joseph, K. B. Moysich, J. L. Freudenheim, P. G. Shields, E. D. Bowman, Y. Zhamg, J. R. Marshall and C. B. Ambrosone, “Cruciferous Vegetables, Generic Polymorphism in Glutathione S-Transferases M1 and T1, and Protate Cancer Risk,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 50, 2004, pp. 206-213. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5002_11
[45] N. Juge, R. F. Mithen and M. Traka, “Molecular Basis for Chemoprevention by Sulforaphane: A Comprehensive Review,” Cellular and Molecular Life Science, Vol. 64, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1105-1127. doi:10.1007/s00018-007-6484-5
[46] M. W. Farnham, K. K. Stephenson and J. Fahey, “Capacity of Broccoli to Induce Mammalian Chemo Protective Enzyme Varies Among Inbred Lines,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 125, No. 4, 2000, pp. 482-488.
[47] J. W. Fahey, A. T. Zalcmann and P. Talalay, “The Chemical Diversity and Distribution of Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates among Plants,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2001, pp. 5-51. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00316-2
[48] C. H. VanEtten, M. E. Dzenbichler, P. Williams and W. F. Kwolek, “Glucosinolates and Derived Products in Cruciferous Vegetables. Analysis in the Edible Part from Twenty-Two Varieties of Cabbage,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1976, pp. 452-455. doi:10.1021/jf60205a049
[49] D. G. Carlson, M. E. Daxenbichler, C. H. Van Etten, H. L. Tookey and P. H. Williams, “Glucosinolates in Crucifer Vegetables: Turnip and Rutabagas,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 29, No. 6, 1981, pp. 1235-1239. doi:10.1021/jf00108a034
[50] D. G. Carlson, M. E. Daxenbichler, C. H. VanEtten, C. B. Hill and P. H. Williams, “Glucosinolates in Radish Cultivars,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 110, No. 5, 1985, pp. 634-638.
[51] D. G. Carlson, M. E. Daxenbichler, C. H. VanEtten, W. F. Kwolek and P. H. Williams, “Glucosinolates in Crucifer Vegetables: Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cauliflower, Collards, Kale, Mustard Green, and Kohlrabi,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 112, 1987, pp. 173-178.
[52] D. G. Carlson, M. E. Daxenbichler, C. H. VanEtten, W. F. Kwolek, C. B. Hill and P. H. Williams, “Glucosinolates in Turnip Tops and Roots: Cultivars Grown for Greens and/or Roots,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 112, No. 1, 1987, pp. 179-183.
[53] M. K. Kushad, A. F. Brown, A. C. Kurillicn, J. A. Juvik, B. P. Klein, M. A. Wallig and E. H. Jeffery, “Variation in Glucosinolates in Vegetable Crops of Brassica oleracea,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 47, No. 4, 1999, pp. 1541-1548. doi:10.1021/jf980985s
[54] E. Ciska, B. Martyniak-Przybyszewska and H. H. Kozlowska, “Content of Glucosinolates in Cruciferous Vegetables Grown at the Same Site for Two Years under Different Climatic Condition,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 7, 2000, pp. 2862-2867. doi:10.1021/jf981373a
[55] F. Vallejo, F. A. Tomas-Barberan and C. Garcia-Viguera, “Potential Bioactive Compounds in Health Promotion from Broccoli Cultivars Grown in Spain,” Journal of the Science and Food Agriculture, Vol. 82, No. 11, 2002, pp. 1293-1297. doi:10.1002/jsfa.1183
[56] F. Vallejo, F. A. Tomas-Barberan, A. G. Banavent-Garcia and C. Garcia-Viguera, “Total and Individual Glucosinolate Contents in Inflorescences of Eight Broccoli Cultivars Grown under Various Climatic and Fertilization Conditions,” Journal of the Science and Food Agriculture, Vol. 83, No. 4, 2003, pp. 307-313. doi:10.1002/jsfa.1320
[57] J. Nilsson, K. Olsson, G. Engqvist, J. Ekvall, M. Olsson, M. Nyman and B. Akesson, “Variation in the Content of Glucosinolates, Hydroxycinnamic Acids, Carotenoids, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Low-Molecular-Weight Carbohydrates in Brassica Vegetables,” Journal of the Science and Food Agriculture, Vol. 86, No. 4, 2006, pp. 528-538. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2355
[58] J. Borkowski, A. Szajdek, E. J. Borkowska, E. Ciska and H. Zielinski, “Content of Selected Bioactive Components and Anti-Oxidant Properties of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.),” European Food Research and Technology, Vol. 226, No. 3, 2008, pp. 459-465. doi:10.1007/s00217-006-0557-9
[59] M. E. Cartea, P. Velasco, S. Obregón, G. Padilla and A. de Haro, “Seasonal Variation in Glucosinolate Content in Brassica oleracea Crops Grown in Northwestern Spain,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 69, No. 2, 2008, pp. 403-410. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.08.014
[60] M. Hansen, G. B. Bengtsson, G. I. Borge, L. Berge and A. B. Wold, “Red Cabbage, a Vegetable Rich in Health-Related Glucosinolates,” Acta Hort, Vol. 867, No. 5, 2010, pp. 61-65.
[61] J. W. Fahey, Y. S. Zhang and P. Talalay, “Broccoli sprouts: An Exceptionally Rich Source of Inducers of Enzymes that Protects against Chemical Carcinogens,” Proceedings of National, Academic Science (USA), Vol. 94, No. 19, 1997, pp. 10367-10372. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.19.10367
[62] R. M. Goodrich, J. L. Anderson and G. Stoewsand, “Glucosinolate Changes in Blanched Broccoli and Brussels Sprouts,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1989, pp. 275-280. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4549.1989.tb00106.x
[63] B. Kusznierewics, A. Bartoszek, L. Wolska, J. Drzewiwcki, S. Gorinstein and J. Namiesnik, “Partial Characterization of White Cabbages (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba) from Different Regions by Glucosinolates, Bioactive Compounds, Total Antioxidant Activities and Proteins,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2008, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2007.02.007
[64] R. Magrath and R. Mithen, “Maternal Effects of the Expression of Individual Aliphatic Glucosinolates in Seeds and Seedlings of Brasscia napus,” Plant Breeding, Vol. 111, No. 3, 1993, pp. 249-252. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0523.1993.tb00637.x
[65] R. Magrath, F. Bano, M. Morgner, I. Parkin, A. Sharpe, C. Lister, C. Dean, J. Turner, D. Lydiate and R. Mithen, “Genetics of Aliphatic Glucosinolates I. Side Chain Elongation in Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana,” Heredity, Vol. 72, No. 3, 1994, pp. 290-299. doi:10.1038/hdy.1994.39
[66] A. Giamoustraris and R. Mithen, “Genetics of Aliphatic Glucosinolates. 4. Side-Chain Modification in Brassica oleracea,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol. 93, No. 5-6, 1996, pp. 1006-1010. doi:10.1007/BF00224105
[67] G. Cao, E. Sofic and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant Capacity of Tea and Common Vegetables,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 11, 1996, pp. 3426-3431. doi:10.1021/jf9602535
[68] A. Kurilich, G. J. Tsau, A. Brown, L. Howard, B. Klein, E. Jeffery, M. M. Kushad, M. A. Wallig and J. A. Juvik, “Carotene, Tocopherol and Ascorbate Contents in Sub-Species of Brassica oleracea,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 47, 1999, pp. 1576-1581. doi:10.1021/jf9810158
[69] E. J. M. Konings, H. H. Roomans, E. Dorant, R. A. Goldbohm, W. H. Saris and P. A. van den Brandt, “Folate Intake of the Dutch Population According to Newly Established Liquid Chromatography Data for Foods,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 4, 2001, pp. 765-776.
[70] A. Fermenia, R. R. Selvendran, S. G. Ring and J. A. Robertson, “Effects of Heat Treatment and Dehydration on Properties of Cauliflower Fiber,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 47, No. 2, 1999, pp. 728-732. doi:10.1021/jf980462k
[71] C. R. Rahn, G. D. Bending, R. D. Lillywhite and M. K. Turner, “Chemical Characterisation of Vegetable and Arable Crops Residue Materials: A Comparison of Methods,” Journal of the Science and Food Agriculture, Vol. 79, 1999, pp. 1715-1721. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199909)79:12<1715::AID-JSFA426>3.0.CO;2-V
[72] G. Banuelos and D. Meek, “Selenium Accumulation in Selected Vegetables,” Journal of Plant Nutrition, Vol. 12, No. 10, 1989, pp. 1255-1272. doi:10.1080/01904168909364034
[73] J. W. Finley, C. Ip, D. J. Lisk, C. D. Davis, K. J. Hintze, and P. D. Whanger, “Cancer-Protective Properties of High-Selenium Broccoli,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 5, 2001, pp. 2679-2683. doi:10.1021/jf0014821
[74] X. Cai, E. Block, P. C. Uden, X. Zhang, B. D. Quimby and J. J. Sullivan, “Allium Chemistry: Identification of Selenoaminoacids in Ordinary and Selenium-Enriched Garlic, Onion and Broccoli Using Gas Chromatography with Atomic Emission Detection,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 43, No. 7, 1995, pp. 1754-1757. doi:10.1021/jf00055a002
[75] J. W. Finley, C. D. Davis and Y. Feng, “Selenium from High Selenium Broccoli Protects Rats from Colon Cancer,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 130, No. 9, 2000, pp. 2384-2389.
[76] A. Bibak, S. Sturup, L. Knudsen and V. Gundersen, “Concentration of 63 Elements in Cabbage and Sprouts in Denmark,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 30, No. 17-18, 1999, pp. 2409-2418. doi:10.1080/00103629909370382
[77] K. H. Miean and S. Mohamed, “Flavonoid (Myricetin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Luteolinand Apigenin) Content of Edible Tropical Plants,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 6, 2001, pp. 106-112. doi:10.1021/jf000892m
[78] M. G. Hertog, P. C. Hollman and M. B. Katan, “Content of Potentially Anticarcinogenic Flavonoids of 28 Vegetables and Fruits Commonly Consumed in the Netherlands,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 40, No. 12, 1992, pp. 2379-2383. doi:10.1021/jf00024a011
[79] J. K. Nielson, C. E. Olsen and M. K. Petersen, “Acylated Flavonol Glycosides from Cabbage Leaves,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1993, pp. 539-544. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(93)80042-Q
[80] R. Kubec, M. Svobodovaand and J. Velisek, “Distribution of S-Alk(en)ylcysteine Sulfoxides in Some Allium Species. Identification of a New Flavour Precursor: S-Ethylcysteine Sulfoxide (ethiin),” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2000, pp. 428-433. doi:10.1021/jf990938f
[81] R. Kubec, M. Svobodova and J. Velisek, “Gas-Chromatographic Determination of S-Alk(eny)lylcysteine Sulfoxide,” Journal of Chromatography, Vol. 862, 1999, pp. 85-94. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00902-4
[82] K. Herrmann, “Flavonols and Flavones in Food Plants: A Review,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 5, 1976, pp. 433-448. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1976.tb00743.x
[83] A. Bilyk and G. M. Sapers, “Distribution of Quercetin and Kaemperol in Lettuce, Kale, Chive, Garlic Chive Leek, Horseradish, Red Radish and Red Cabbage Tissue,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 33, 1985, pp. 226-228. doi:10.1021/jf00062a017
[84] C. Ip and D. J. Lisk, “Enrichment of Selenium in Allium Vegetables for Cancer Prevention,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 15, No. 9, 1994, pp. 1881-1885. doi:10.1093/carcin/15.9.1881
[85] K. El-Bayoumy, “The Role of Selenium in Cancer Prevention,” In: V. T. DeVita, S. Hellman and S. A. Rosenberg, Eds., Cancer Principles and Practices of Oncology, Philadelphia, 1991, pp. 1-15.
[86] H. Wang, A. Kruszewki and D. L. Brautigan, “Cellular Chromium Activation of Insulin Receptor Kinase,” Biochemistry, Vol. 44, No. 22, 2005, pp. 8167-8175. doi:10.1021/bi0473152
[87] T. Ritsema and S. Smeekens, “Fructans: Beneficial for Plants and Humans,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2003, pp. 223-230. doi:10.1016/S1369-5266(03)00034-7
[88] H. P. Kruse, B. Kleessen and M. Blaut, “Effects of Inulin on Faecal Bifidobacteria in Human Subjects,” The British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 82, No. 5, 1999, pp. 375-382.
[89] S. Kilian, S. Kritzinger, C. Rycroft, G. R. Gibson and J. Du Preez, “The Effects of the Novel Bifidogenic Trisacharide, Neokestose, on the Human Colonic Microbiota,” World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, Vol. 18, No. 7, 2002, pp. 637-644. doi:10.1023/A:1016808015630
[90] K. E. Scholz-Ahrens, G. Schaafsma, E. G. H. M. Van Den Heuvel and J. Schrezenmeir, “Effects of Prebiotics on Mineral Metabolism,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2001, pp. 459-464.
[91] K. G. Jackson, G. R. Taylor, A. M. Clohessy and C. M. Willieams, “The Effect of the Daily Intake of Inulin on Fasting Lipid, Insulin and Glucose Concentrations in Middle-Aged Men and Women,” The British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 82, No. 1, 1999, pp. 23-30.
[92] K. Srinivasan, “Plant Foods in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Spices as Beneficial Antidiabetic Food Adjuncts,” Internaional Journal of Food Science Nutrition, Vol. 56, No. 6, 2005, pp. 399-414. doi:10.1080/09637480500512872
[93] K. K. Sharma, R. K. Gupta, S. C. Gupta and K. C. Samuel, “Antithyperglycemic Effect of Onion: Effect on Fasting Blood Sugar and Induced Hyperglycemic in Man,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, Vol. 65, No. 3, 1977, pp. 422-429.
[94] A. Tjokroprawiro, B. S. Pikir, A. A. Budhiarta, S. H. Pranawa, M. Deonosepoetro, F. X. Budhianto, J. A. Wibowo, S. J. Tanuwidjaja and M. Pangemanan, “Metabolic Effects of Onion and Green Beans on Diabetic Patients,” The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 141, 1983, pp. 671-676. doi:10.1620/tjem.141.Suppl_671
[95] E. Dorant, P. A. Van Den Brandt, R. A. Goldbohm and F. Sturnmans, “Comsumption of Onions and a Reduced Risk of Stomach Carcinoma,” Gastroenterology, Vol. 110, No. 1, 1996, pp. 12-20. doi:10.1053/gast.1996.v110.pm8536847
[96] W. C. You, J. Y. Li, L. Zhang, M. L. Jin, Y. S. Chang, J. L. Ma and K. F. Pan, “Etiology and Prevention of Gastric Cancer: A Population Study in High Risk Area of China,” Chinese Journal of Digestive Diseases, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2005, pp. 149-154. doi:10.1111/j.1443-9573.2005.00222.x
[97] C. Galeone, C. Pelucchi, F. Levi, E. Negri, S. Franceschi, R. Talamini, A. Giacosa and C. La Vecchia, “Onion and Garlic Use and Human Cancer,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 84, No. 5, 2006, pp. 1027-1032. doi:10.1002/ijc.21336
[98] J. Y. Kim and O. Kwon, “Garlic Intake and Cancer Risk: An Analysis Using the Food and Drug Administration’s Evidence-Based Review System for the Scientific Evaluation of Health Claims,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 1, 2009, pp. 257-264. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26142
[99] S. Salem, M. Salahi, M. Mohseni, H. Ahmadi, A. Mehrsai, Y. Jahani and G. Pourmand, “Major Dietary Factors and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Multicenter Case-Control Study,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 63, No. 1, 2011, pp. 21-27.
[100] W. C. You, L. Zhang, M. H. Gail, J. L. Ma, Y. S. Chang, W. J. Blot, J. Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, W. D. Liu, H. Q. Li, Y. R. Hu, J. C. Bravo, P. Correa, G. W. Xu and J. F. Fraumeni Jr., “Helicobacter Pylori Infection, Garlic Intake and Precancerous Lesions in a Chinese Population at Low Risk of Gastric Cancer,” Internaional Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 27, No. 6, 1998, pp. 941-944. doi:10.1093/ije/27.6.941
[101] T. Takezaki, C. M. Gao, J. H. Ding, T. K. Liu, M. S. Li and K. Tajima, “Comparative Study of Lifestyles of Residents in High and Low Risk Areas for Gastric Cancer in Jiangsu Province, China with Special Reference to Allium Vegetables,” Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1999, pp. 297-305. doi:10.2188/jea.9.297
[102] C. M. Gao, T. Takezaki, J. H. Ding, M. S. Li and K. Tajima, “Protective Effect of Allium Vegetables Against both Esophageal and Stomach Cancer: A Simultaneous Casereferent Study of a High-Epidemic Area in Jiangsu Province, China,” Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, Vol. 90, No. 6, 1999, pp. 614-621. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.1999.tb00791.x
[103] E. Dorant, P. A. van den Brandt, R. A. Goldbohm and F. Sturmans, “Consumption of Onions and a Reduced Risk of Stomach Carcinoma,” Gastroenterology, Vol. 110, No. 1, 1996, pp. 12-20. doi:10.1053/gast.1996.v110.pm8536847
[104] C. Pelucchi, C. Bosetti, M. Rossi, E. Negri and C. La Vecchia, “Selected Aspects of Mediterranean Diet and Cancer Risk,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 61, No. 6, 2009, pp. 756-766. doi:10.1080/01635580903285007
[105] T. Hirohata and S. Kono, “Diet/Nutrition and Stomach Cancer in Japan,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 10, 1997, pp. 34-36. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(1997)10+<34::AID-IJC9>3.0.CO;2-A
[106] N. Munoz, M. Plummer, J. Vivas, V. Moreno, S. De Sanjose, G. Lopez and W. Oliver, “A Case-Control Study of Gastric Cancer in Venezuela,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 93, No. 3, 2001, pp. 417-423. doi:10.1002/ijc.1333
[107] E. De Stefani, P. Correa, P. Boffetta, A. Ronco, P. Brennan, H. Deneo-Pellegrini and M. Mendilaharsu, “Plant Foods and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Uruguay,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2001, pp. 357-364. doi:10.1097/00008469-200108000-00009
[108] A. T. Fleischauer, C. Poole and L. Arab, “Garlic Consumption and Cancer Prevention: Meta-Analyses of Colorectal and Stomach Cancers,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 4, 2000, pp. 1047-1052.
[109] A. W. Hsing, A. P. Chokkalingam, Y. T. Gao, M. P. Madigan, J. Deng, G. Gridley and J. F. Fraumeni Jr., “Allium Vegetables and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 94, No. 21, 2002, pp. 1648-1651. doi:10.1093/jnci/94.21.1648
[110] S. Tanaka, K. Haruma, M. Kunihiro, S. Nagata, Y. Kitadai, N. Manabe, M. Sumii, M. Yoshihara, G. Kajiyama and K. Chayama, “Effects of Aged Garlic Extract (AGE) on Colorectal Adenomas: A Double-Blinded Study,” Hiroshima Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 53, No. 3-4, 2004, pp. 39-45.
[111] S. Tanaka, K. Haruma, M. Yoshihara, G. Kajiyama, K. Kira, H. Amagase and K. Chayama, “Aged Garlic Extract Has Potential Suppressive Effect on Colorectal Adenomas in Humans,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 136, No. 3, 2006, pp. 821S-826S.
[112] W. B. Grant, “A Multicountry Ecologic Study of Risk and Risk Reduction Factors for Prostate Cancer Mortality,” European Urology, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2004, pp. 271-279. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2003.08.018
[113] B. Challier, J. M. Perarnau and J. F. Viel, “Garlic, Onion and Cereal Fibre as Protective Factors for Breast Cancer: A French Case-Control Study,” European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 14, No. 8, 1998, pp. 737-747. doi:10.1023/A:1007512825851
[114] C. Galeone, C. Pelucchi, L. Dal Maso, E. Negri, M. Montella, A. Zucchetto, R. Talamini and C. La Vecchia, “Allium Vegetables Intake and Endometrial Cancer Risk,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 12, 2009, pp. 1576-1579. doi:10.1017/S1368980008003820
[115] J. A. Satia, A. Littman, C. G. Slatore, J. A. Galanko and E. White, “Associations of Herbal and Specialty Supplements with Lung and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle Study,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1419-1428. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0038
[116] A. Herman-Antosiewicz, A. A. Powolny and S. V. Singh, “Molecular Targets of Cancer Chemoprevention by Garlic-Derived Organosulfides,” Acta Pharmacological Sinica, Vol. 28, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1355-1364. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7254.2007.00682.x
[117] M. Iciek, I. Kwiecien and L. Wlodek, “Biological Properties of Garlic and Garlic-Derived Organosulfur Compounds,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2009, pp. 247-265. doi:10.1002/em.20474
[118] S. Melino, R. Sabelli and M. Paci, “Allyl Sulfur Compounds and Cellular Detoxification System: Effects and Perspectives in Cancer Therapy,” Amino Acids, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2011, pp. 103-112. doi:10.1007/s00726-010-0522-6
[119] M. Y. Shon, S. D. Choi, G. G. Kahng, S. H. Nam and N. J. Sung, “Antimutagenic, Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from White, Yellow and Red Onions,” Food Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2004, pp. 659-666. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2003.12.002
[120] J. Yang, K. J. Meyers, J. Van der Heide and R. H. Liu, “Varietal Differences in Phenolic Content and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Onions,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 22, 2004, pp. 6787-6793. doi:10.1021/jf0307144
[121] K. S. Osmont, C. R. Arnt and I. L. Goldman, “Temporal Aspects of Onion-Induced Antiplatelet Activity,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2003, pp. 27-40. doi:10.1023/A:1024062330700
[122] G. P. Hubbard, S. Wolffram, J. A. Lovegrove and J. M. Gibbins, “Ingestion of Quercetin Inhibits Platelet Aggregation and Essential Components of the Collagen-Stimulated Platelet Activation Pathway in Man: A Pilot Study,” The British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 96, No. 3, 2006, pp. 2138-2145.
[123] S. Clinton, “Lycopene: Chemistry, Biology and Implication for Human Health and Disease,” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 56, No. 2, 1998, pp. 35-51. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1998.tb01691.x
[124] K. J. Scott and D. J. Hart, “Development and Evolution of an HPLC Method for the Analysis of Carotenoids Food and the Measurement of the Carotenoid Content Vegetables and Fruits Commonly Consumed in the UK,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, 1995, pp. 101-111. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(95)92669-B
[125] L. H. Tonucci, J. M. Holden, G. R. Beecher, F. Khachik, C. S. Davis and G. Mulokozi, “Carotenoid Content of Thermally Processed Tomato-Based Food Products,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1995, pp. 579-586. doi:10.1021/jf00051a005
[126] H. Gerster, “The Potential Role of Lycopene for Human Health,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1997, pp. 109-126.
[127] A. V. Rao, Z. Waseem and S. Agarwal, “Lycopene Contents of Tomatoes and Tomato Products and Their Contribution to Dietary Lycopene,” Food Research International, Vol. 31, No. 10, 1998, pp. 737-741. doi:10.1016/S0963-9969(99)00053-8
[128] A. A. Albushita, H. G. Daood and P. A. Biacs, “Change in Carotenoids and Antioxidant Vitamins in Tomato as a Function of Varietal and Technological Factors,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2000, pp. 2075-2081. doi:10.1021/jf990715p
[129] C. Leonardi, P. Ambrosino, F. Esposito and V. Fogliano, “Antioxidant Activity and Caroteoid and Tomatine Contentes in Different Typologies of Fresh Consumption Tomatoes,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 10, 2000, pp. 4723-4727. doi:10.1021/jf000225t
[130] L. Arab and S. Steck, “Lycopene and Cardiovascular Disease,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 6, 2000, pp. 1691S-1695S.
[131] United States Department of Agriculture, “USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference,” 2009.
[132] Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, “Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee,” 2005. Methodology.htm
[133] Food and Nutrition Board, “Water and Electrolytes. Recommended Dietary Allowances,” National Academies Press, Washington DC, 1989, pp. 247-261. doi:10.1021/jf000225t
[134] Food and Nutrition Board, “Panel on Dietary Intakes for Electrolytes and Water. Potassium. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate,” National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2005.
[135] A. V. Rao and L. G. Rao, “Carotenoids and Human Health,” Pharmacological Research, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2007, pp. 207-216. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.012
[136] A. A. Albushita, E. A. Hebshi, H. G. Daood and P. A. Biacs, “Determination of Antioxidant Vitamins in Tomato,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 60, No. 2, 1997, pp. 207-212. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00321-4
[137] A. J. Stewart, S. Bozonnet, W. Mullen, G. I. Jenkins, M. E. Lean and A. Crozier, “Occurrence of Flavonols in Tomatoes and Tomato-Based Products,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 7, 2000, pp. 2663-2669. doi:10.1021/jf000070p
[138] A. Crozier, M. E. Lean, M. S. McDonaldand and C. Black, “Quantitative Analysis of the Flavonoid Content of Commercial Tomatoes, Onions, Lettuceand Celery,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 45, No. 3, 1997, pp. 590-595. doi:10.1021/jf960339y
[139] C. M. Allen, S. J. Schwartz, N. E. Craft, E. L. Giovannucci, V. L. De Groff and S. K. Clinton, “Changes in Plasma and Oral Mucosal Lycopene Isomer Concentrations in Healthy Adults Consuming Standard Servings of Processed Tomato Products,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2003, pp. 48-56. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc4701_6
[140] R. Re, G. D. Mishra, C. W. Thane and C. J. Bates, “Tomato Consumption and Plasma Lycopene Concentration in People Aged 65 and over in a British National Survey,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 57, No. 12, 2003, pp. 1545-1554. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601723
[141] V. Ganji and M. R. Kafai, “Population Determinants of Serum Lycopene Concentrations in the United States: Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 135, No. 3, 2005, pp. 567-572.
[142] P. G. Burney, G. W. Comstock and J. S. Morris, “Serologic Precursors of Cancer: Serum Micronutrients and the Subsequent Risk of Pancreatic Cancer,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 49, No. 5, 1989, pp. 895-900.
[143] J. Van Eenwyk, F. G. Davis and P. E. Bowen, “Dietary and Serum Carotenoids and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 48, No. 1, 1991, pp. 34-38. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910480107
[144] S. Franceschi, E. Bidoli, C. La Vecchia, R. Talamini, B. D’Avanzo and E. Negri, “Tomatoes and Risk of Digestive-Tract Cancers,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 59, No. 2, 1994, pp. 181-184. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910590207
[145] K. J. Helzlsouer, G. W. Comstock and J. S. Morris, “Selenium, Lycopene, Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene, Retinol and Subsequent Bladder Cancer,” Cancer Research, Vol. 49, 1989, pp. 6144-6148.
[146] P. H. Gann, J. Ma and E. Giovannucci, “Lower Prostate Cancer Risk in Men with Elevated Plasma Lycopene Levels: Results of a Prospective Analysis,” Cancer Research, Vol. 59, No. 6, 1999, pp. 1225-1230.
[147] J. M. Yuan, R. K. Ross, Y. T. Gao, Y. H. Qu, X. D. Chu and M. C. Yu, “Prediagnostic Levels of Serum Micronutrients in Relation to Risk of Gastric Cancer in Shanghai, China,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2004, pp. 1772-1780.
[148] K. Wakai, M. Ando and K. Ozasa, “Updated Information on Risk Factors for Lung Cancer: Findings from the JACC Study,” Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2005, pp. S134-S139. doi:10.2188/jea.15.S134
[149] C. J. Foy, A. P. Passmore, M. D. Vahidassr, I. S. Young and J. T. Lawson, “Plasma Chain-Breaking Antioxidants in Alzheimer’s Disease, Vascular Dementia and Parkinson’s Disease,” QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Vol. 92, No. 1, 1999, pp. 39-45. doi:10.1093/qjmed/92.1.39
[150] P. Mecocci, M. C. Polidori and A. Cherubini, “Lymphocyte Oxidative DNA Damage and Plasma Antioxidants in Alzheimer Disease,” Archives of Neurology, Vol. 59, No. 5, 2002, pp. 794-798. doi:10.1001/archneur.59.5.794
[151] M. C. Polidori, P. Mattioli and S. Aldred, “Plasma antioxidant Status, Immunoglobulin G Oxidation and Lipid Peroxidation in Demented Patients: Relevance to Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, Vol. 18, No. 3-4, 2004, pp. 265-270. doi:10.1159/000080027
[152] H. D. Sesso, J. E. Buring, E. P. Norkus and J. M. Gaziano, “Plasma Lycopene, Other Carotenoids, and Retinol and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Women,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 1, 2004, pp. 47-53.
[153] D. Maggio, M. C. Polidori and M. Barabani, “Low Levels of Carotenoids and Retinol in Involution Osteoporosis,” Bone, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2006, pp. 244-248. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2005.08.003
[154] L. F. Anderson, D. R. Jacobs, M. D. Gross, P. A. Schreiner, D. O. Williams and D. H. Lee, “Longitudinal Associations between Body Mass Index and Serum Carotenoids: The CARDIA Study,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 95, No. 2, 2006, pp. 358-365. doi:10.1079/BJN20051638
[155] L. G. Rao, E. S. Mackinnon, R. G. Josse, T. M. Murray, A. Strauss and A. V. Rao, “Lycopene Consumption Decreases Oxidative Stress and Bone Resorption Markers in Postmenopausal Women,” Osteoporosis International, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2007, pp. 109-115. doi:10.1007/s00198-006-0205-z
[156] Z. Yang, Z. Zhang, K. L. Penniston, N. Binkley and S. A. Tanumihardjo, “Serum Carotenoid Concentrations in Postmenopausal Women from the United States with and without Osteoporosis,” Internatonal Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, Vol. 78, No. 3, 2008, pp. 105-111. doi:10.1024/0300-9831.78.3.105
[157] L. L. Marchand, C. N. Yoshizawa, L. N. Kolonel, J. H. Hankin and M. T. Goodman, “Vegetable Consumption and Lung Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Hawaii,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 81, No. 15, 1989, pp. 1158-1164. doi:10.1093/jnci/81.15.1158
[158] E. De Stefani, F. Oreggia, P. Boffetta, H. Deneo-Pellegrini, A. Ronco and M. Mendilaharsu, “Tomatoes, Tomato-Rich Foods, Lycopene and Cancer of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: A Case-Control in Uruguay,” Oral Oncology, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2000, pp. 47-53. doi:10.1016/S1368-8375(99)00050-0
[159] J. E. Upritchard, W. H. Sutherland and J. I. Mann, “Effect of Supplementation with Tomato Juice, Vitamin E and Vitamin C on LDL Oxidation and Products of Inflammatory Activity in Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 23, 2000, pp. 733-738. doi:10.2337/diacare.23.6.733
[160] L. A. Mucci, R. Tamimi and P. Lagiou, “Are Dietary Influences on the Risk of Prostate Cancer Mediated through the Insulin-Like Growth Factor System,” BJU International, Vol. 87, No. 9, 2001, pp. 814-820. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.2001.02191.x
[161] L. Chen, M. Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis and C. Duncan, “Oxidative DNA Damage in Prostate Cancer Patients Consuming Tomato Sauce-Based Entrees as a Whole-Food Intervention,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 93, 2001, pp. 1872-1879. doi:10.1093/jnci/93.24.1872
[162] E. Giovannucci, E. B. Rimm, Y. Liu, M. J. Stampfer and W. C. Willett, “A Prospective Study of Tomato Products, Lycopene, and Prostate Cancer Risk,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 94, No. 5, 2002, pp. 391-398. doi:10.1093/jnci/94.5.391
[163] P. Bowen, L. Chen and M. Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, “Tomato Sauce Supplementation and Prostate Cancer: Lycopene Accumulation and Modulation of Biomarkers of Carcinogenesis,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 227, No. 10, 2002, pp. 886-893.
[164] C. W. Hadley, S. K. Clinton and S. J. Schwartz, “The Consumption of Processed Tomato Products Enhances Plasma Lycopene Concentrations in Association with a Reduced Lipoprotein Sensitivity to Oxidative Damage,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 133, No. 3, 2003, pp. 727-732.
[165] H. S. Kim, P. Bowen and L. Chen, “Effects of Tomato Sauce Consumption on Apoptotic Cell Death in Prostate Benign Hyperplasia and Carcinoma,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2003, pp. 40-47. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc4701_5
[166] A. Bub, S. W. Barth, B. Watzl, K. Briviba and G. Rechkemmer, “Paraoxonase 1 Q192R (PON1-192) Polymorphism Is Associated with Reduced Lipid Peroxidation in Healthy Young Men on a Low-Carotenoid Diet Supplemented with Tomato Juice,” The British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 93, No. 3, 2005, pp. 291-297. doi:10.1079/BJN20041309
[167] L. Jian, C. J. Du, A. H. Lee and C. W. Binns, “Do Dietary Lycopene and Other Carotenoids Protect against Prostate Cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 113, No. 6, 2005, pp. 1010-1014. doi:10.1002/ijc.20667
[168] W. Stahl, U. Heinrich, S. Wiseman, O. Eichler, H. Sies and H. Tronnier, “Dietary Tomato Paste Protects against Ultraviolet Light-Induced Erythema in Humans,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 131, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1449-1451.
[169] W. Stahl, U. Heinrich, O. Aust, H. Tronnier and H. Sies, “Lycopene-Rich Products and Dietary Photoprotection,” Photochemical Photobiology Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2006, pp. 238-242. doi:10.1039/b505312a
[170] S. Walfisch, Y. Walfisch and E. Kirilov, “Tomato Lycopene Extract Supplementation Decreases Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Levels in Colon Cancer Patients,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2007, pp. 298-303. doi:10.1097/01.cej.0000236251.09232.7b
[171] K. Jacob, M. J. Periago, V. Bohm and G. R. Berruezo, “Influence of Lycopene and Vitamin C from Tomato Juice on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 99, No. 1, 2008, pp. 137-146. doi:10.1017/S0007114507791894
[172] E. Paran, V. Novack, Y. N. Engelhard and I. Hazan-Halevy, “The Effects of Natural Antioxidants from Tomato Extract in Treated but Uncontrolled Hypertensive Patients,” Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2009, pp. 145-151. doi:10.1007/s10557-008-6155-2
[173] B. Burton-Freeman and K. Reimers, “Tomato Consumption and Health: Emerging Benefits,” American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2011, pp. 182-191. doi:10.1177/1559827610387488
[174] M. S. Edinger and W. J. Koff, “Effect of the Consumption of Tomato Paste on Plasma Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Vol. 39, No. 8, 2006, pp. 1115-1119. doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2006000800014
[175] E. M. Grainger, S. J. Schwartz and S. Wang, “A Combination of Tomato and Soy Products for Men with Recurring Prostate Cancer and Rising Prostate Specific Antigen,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 60, No. 2, 2008, pp. 145-154. doi:10.1080/01635580701621338
[176] S. Schwarz, U. C. Obermuller-Jevic, E. Hellmis, W. Koch, G. Jacobi and H. K. Biesalski, “Lycopene Inhibits Disease Progression in Patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 138, No. 1, 2008, pp. 49-53.
[177] E. Giovannucci, A. Ashcerio and E. B. Rimm, “Intake of Carotenoids and Retinol in Relation to Risk of Prostate Cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 87, No. 23, 1995, pp. 1767-1776. doi:10.1093/jnci/87.23.1767
[178] E. Giovannucci, “Tomatoes, Tomato-Based Products, Lycopene, and Cancer: Review of the Epidemiological Literature,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 91, No. 4, 1999, pp. 317-331. doi:10.1093/jnci/91.4.317
[179] K. Briviba, K. Schnabele, G. Rechkemmer and A. Bub, “Supplementation of a Diet Low in Carotenoids with Tomato or Carrot Juice Does Not Affect Lipid Peroxidation in Plasma and Feces of Healthy Men,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 134, No. 5, 2004, pp. 1081-1083.
[180] D. Steinberg, “Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Its Pathobiological Significance,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 272, 1997, pp. 20963-20966. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.34.20963
[181] K. S. Bose and B. K. Agrawal, “Effect of Long Term Supplementation of Tomatoes (Cooked) on Levels of Antioxidant Enzymes, Lipid Peroxidation Rate, Lipid Profile and Glycated Haemoglobin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,” West Indian Medical Journal, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2006, pp. 274-278.doi:10.1590/S0043-31442006000400010
[182] M. Porrini and P. Riso, “Lymphocyte Lycopene Concentration and DNA Protection from Oxidative Damage Is Increased in Women after a Short Period of Tomato Consumption,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 130, No. 2, 2000, pp. 189-192.
[183] M. Porrini, P. Riso and G. Oriani, “Spinach and Tomato Consumption Increases Lymphocyte DNA Resistance to Oxidative Stress but This Is Not Related to Cell Carotenoid Concentrations,” European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2002, pp. 95-100. doi:10.1007/s003940200014
[184] A. Visioli, P. Riso, S. Grande, C. Galli and M. Porrini, “Protective Activity of Tomato Products on in Vivo Markers of Lipid Oxidation,” European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2003, pp. 201-206. doi:10.1007/s00394-003-0415-5
[185] N. O’Kennedy, L. Crosbie and S. Whelan, “Effects of Tomato Extract on Platelet Function: A Double-Blinded Crossover Study in Healthy Humans,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 84, No. 3, 2006, pp. 561-569.
[186] W. Stahl and H. Sies, “Carotenoids and Protection against Solar UV Radiation,” Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2002, pp. 291-296. doi:10.1159/000064532
[187] N. Wattanapenpaiboon, W. Lukito, M. L. Wahlqvist and B. J. Strauss, “Dietary Carotenoid Intake as a Predictor of Bone Mineral Density,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2003, pp. 467-473.
[188] S. Sahni, M. T. Hannan, J. Blumberg, L. A. Cupples, D. P. Kiel and K. L. Tucker, “Protective Effect of Total Carotenoid and Lycopene Intake on the Risk of Hip Fracture: A 17-Year Follow-Up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 24, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1086-1094. doi:10.1359/jbmr.090102
[189] S. Sahni, M. T. Hannan, J. Blumberg, L. A. Cupples, D. P. Kiel and K. L. Tucker, “Inverse Association of Carotenoid Intakes with 4-y Change in Bone Mineral Density in Elderly Men and Women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 1, 2009, pp. 416-424. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26388
[190] P. Rinaldi, M. C. Polidori and A. Metastasio, “Plasma Antioxidants Are Similarly Depleted in Mild Cognitive Impairment and in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Neurobiology of Aging, Vol. 24, No. 7, 2003, pp. 915-919. doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(03)00031-9
[191] M. C. Polidori and P. Mecocci, “Plasma Susceptibility to Free Radical-Induced Antioxidant Consumption and Lipid Peroxidation Is Increased in Very Old Subjects with Alzheimer Disease,” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2002, pp. 517-522.
[192] A. Raben, A. Tagliabue, N. J. Christensen, J. Madsen, J. J. Holst and A. Astrup, “Resistant Starch: The Effect on Postprandial Glycemia, Hormonal Response, and Satiety,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 60, No. 4, 1994, pp. 544-551.
[193] J. H. Cummings, E. R. Beatty, S. M. Kingman, S. A. Bingham and H. N. Englyst, “Digestion and Physiological Properties of Resistant Starch in the Human Large Bowel,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 5, 1996, pp. 733-747. doi:10.1079/BJN19960177
[194] S. Hylla, A. Gostner and G. Dusel, “Effects of Resistant Starch on the Colon in Healthy Volunteers: Possible Implications for Cancer Prevention,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 67, No. 1, 1998, pp. 136-142.
[195] H. N. Englyst, S. M. Kingman and J. H. Cummings, “Classification and Measurement of Nutritionally Important Starch Fractions,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1992, pp. S33-S50.
[196] University of California and National Center for Food Safety and Technology, “Lose the Weight, NOT the Potatoes,” 2010.
[197] G. Fernandes, A. Velangi and T. M. S. Wolever, “Glycemic Index of Potatoes Commonly Consumed in North America,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 105, No. 4, 2005, pp. 557-562. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.01.003
[198] C. M. McCay, J. B. McCay and O. Smith, “Nutritive Value of Potato,” In: W. F. Talburt and O. Smith, Eds., Potato Processing, Westport, 1987, pp. 287-331.
[199] J. Okeyo and M. Kushad, “Composition of Four Potato Cultivars in Relation to Cold Storage and Reconditioning,” HortTechnology, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1995, pp. 250-253.
[200] M. Friedman, “Nutricional Value of Proteins from Different Food Sources: A Review,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1996, pp. 6-29. doi:10.1021/jf9400167
[201] M. Friedman, “Chemistry, Biochemistry and Dietary Role of Potato Polyphenols: A Review,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 45, No. 5, 1997, pp. 1523-1540.doi:10.1021/jf960900s
[202] C. S. Jung, H. M. Griffiths, D. M. De Jong, S. Cheng, M. Bodis and W. S. De Jong, “The Potato Plocus Codes for Flavonoid 3’,5’-Hydroxylase,” Tag Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol. 110, No. 2, 2005, pp. 269-275. doi:10.1007/s00122-004-1829-z
[203] R. M. Reeve, E. Hautala and M. L. Weaver, “Anatomy and Compositional Variation within Potatoes II. Phenolics, Enzymes and Other Minor Components,” American Journal of Potato Research, Vol. 46, No. 10, 1969, pp. 374-386. doi:10.1007/BF02869558
[204] P. Thomas and M. R. Joshi, “Prevention of After-Cooking Darkening of Irradiated Potatoes,” Potato Research, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1977, pp. 77-84. doi:10.1007/BF02362302
[205] M. S. Al-Saikhan, L. R. Howard and J. C. Miller, “Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolics in Different Genotypes of Potato (Solanum tuberosum, L.),” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 60, No. 2, 1995, pp. 341-344. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb05668.x
[206] D. Hasegawa, R. M. Johnson and W. A. Gould, “Changes during Storage, Effect of Cold Storage on Chlorogenic Acid Content of Potatoes,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1966, pp. 165-169. doi:10.1021/jf60144a020
[207] E. Cieslik, “The Effect of Naturally Occurring Vitamin C in Potato Tubers on the Levels of Nitrates and Nitriles,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 3, 1994, pp. 233-235. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(94)90165-1
[208] M. Hagg, R. Hakkinen, J. Kumpulainen, R. Ahvenainen and E. Hurme, “Effects of Preparation Procedures, Packaging and Storage on Nutrient Retention of Peeled Potatos,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 77, No. 4, 1998, pp. 519-526. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199808)77:4<519::AID-JSFA75>3.0.CO;2-C
[209] A. S. Ong and E. S. Tee, “Natural Sources of Carotenoids from Plants and Oils,” Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 213, 1992, pp. 142-167. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(92)13118-H
[210] L. Packer, “Vitamin E Is Nature’s Master Antioxidant,” Science & Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1994, pp. 54-63.
[211] J. Lachman, J. K. Hamouz, M. Orsak and V. Pivec, “Potato Tubers as a Significant Source of Antioxidants in Human Nutrition,” Rostlinná Vyroba, Vol. 46, No. 5, 2000, pp. 231-236.
[212] I. Djujic, B. Djujic and L. Trajkovic, “Dietary Intake of Selenium in Serbia: Results for 1991 Conference Selenium,” Nauc. Skup. Srp. Akad. Nauk. Umet, Vol. 6, 1995, pp. 81-87.
[213] P. W. Bosland, “Capsicums: Innovative Uses of an Ancient Crop,” In: J. Janick, Ed., Progress in New Crops, ASHS Press, Arlington, 1996, pp. 479-487.
[214] L. R. Howard, S. T. Talcott, C. H. Brenes and B. Villalon, “Changes in Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum species) as Influenced by Maturity,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1713-1720. doi:10.1021/jf990916t
[215] L. R. Howard, R. T. Smith, A. B. Wagner, B. Villalon and E. E. Burns, “Provitamin A and Ascorbic Acid Content of Fresh Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum annum) and Processed Jalapenos,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 59, No. 2, 1994, pp. 362-365. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1994.tb06967.x
[216] Y. Lee, R. Howard and B. Villalon, “Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Pepper (Capsicum annum) Cultivars,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1995, pp. 473-476.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb09806.x
[217] E. K. Nelson, “The Constitution of Capsaicin, the Pungent Principle of Capsicum,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 41, No. 7, 1919, pp. 1115-1117. doi:10.1021/ja02228a011
[218] T. Suzuki and K. Iwai, “Constituents of Red Pepper Species: Chemistry, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, and Food Science of the Pungent Principle of Capsicum Species,” In: A. Brossi, Ed., The Alkaloids, Academic Press, San Diego, 1984, pp. 227-299.
[219] A. M. Krajewska and J. J. Powers, “Sensory Properties of Naturally Occurring Capsaicinoids,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1988, pp. 902-905. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb08981.x
[220] B. V. Thomas, A. A. Schreilber and C. P. Weisskopf, “Simple Method for Quantitation of Capsaicinoids in Pepper Using Capillary Gas Chromatography,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 46, No. 7, 1998, pp. 2655-2663. doi:10.1021/jf970695w
[221] A. Szallasi and P. M. Blumberg, “Vanilloid (Capsaicin) Receptors and Mechanisms,” Pharmacological Reviews, Vol. 51, No. 2, 1999, pp. 159-211.
[222] B. Frei and S. Lawson, “Vitamin C and Cancer Revisited,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), Vol. 105, No. 32, 2008, pp. 11037-11038. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806433105
[223] Y. Noda, T. Kaneyuki, K. Igarashi, A. Moriand and L. Pacer, “Antioxidant Activity of Nasunin, an Anthocyanin in Eggplant,” Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology, Vol. 102, No. 2, 1998, pp. 175-187.
[224] F. Kayamori and K. Igarashi, “Effect of Dietary Nasunin on the Serum Cholesterol Level in Rats,” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, Vol. 58, 1994, pp. 570-571.
[225] Y. Noda, T. Kneyuki and K. Igarashi, “Antioxidant Activity of Nasunin, an Anthocyanin in Eggplant Peels,” Toxicology, Vol. 148, No. 2-3, 2000, pp. 119-123.
[226] N. Matsuzoe, M. Yamaguchi, S. Kawanobu, Y. Watanabe, H. Higashi and Y. Sakata, “Effect of Dark Treatment of the Eggplant on Fruit Skin Color and Its Anthocyanin Components,” Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 68, No. 1, 1999, pp. 138-145. doi:10.2503/jjshs.68.138
[227] A. Ben-Amos and R. Fishler, “Analysis of Carotenoids with Emphasis on 9-cis β-carotene in Vegetables and Fruits Commonly Consumed in Israel,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 62, No. 4, 1998, pp. 515-520.
[228] A. H. Ensminger, M. E. Esminger, J. E. Kondale and J. R. K. Robson, “Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia,” Pegus Press, Inc., California, 1986.
[229] R. Wood, “The Whole Foods Encyclopedia,” Prentice-Hall Press, New York, 1988.
[230] P. A. Jorge, L. C. Neyra and R. M. Osaki, “Effect of Eggplant on Plasma Lipid Levels, lipidic Peroxidation and Reversion of Endothelial Dysfunction in Experimental Hypercholesterolemia,” Arquivos. Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Vol. 70, No. 2, 1998, pp. 87-91.
[231] P. R. Guimaraes, A. M. Galvao, C. M. Batista, G. S. Azevedo, R. D. Oliveira, R. Lamounier, N. Freire, A. Barros, E. Sakurai, J. Oliveira, E. Vieira and J. Alvarez-Leite, “Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Infusion Has a Modest and Transitory Effect on Hypercholesterolemic Subjects,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Vol. 33, No. 9, 2000, pp. 1027-1036. doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2000000900006
[232] J. M. Praca, A. Thomaz and B. Caramelli, “Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Extract Does Not Alter Serum Lipid Levels,” Arquivos. Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Vol. 82, No. 3, 2004, pp. 273-276.
[233] H. Nagase, K. Sasaki, H. Kito, A. Haga and T. Sato, “Inhibitory Effect of Delphinidin from Solanum melongena on Human Fibrosarcoma HT-1080 Invasiveness in Vitro,” Planta Meidica., Vol. 64, No. 3, 1998, pp. 216-219. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957412
[234] Y. I. Kwon, E. Apostolidis and K. Shetty, “In Vitro Studies of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Phenolics as Inhibitors of Key Enzymes Relevant for Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 99, No. 8, 2008, pp. 2981-2988.
[235] E. F. Domino, E. Hornbach and T. Demana, “The Nicotine Content of Common Vegetables,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 329, No. 437, 1993. doi:10.1056/NEJM199308053290619
[236] F. Parivar, R. K. Low and M. L. Stoller, “The Influence of Diet on Urinary Stone Disease,” The Journal of Urology, Vol. 155, No. 2, 1996, pp. 432-440. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)66411-5
[237] D. G. Assimos and R. P. Holmes, “Role of Diet in the Therapy of Urolithiasis,” Urologic Clinics of North America, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2000, pp. 255-268. doi:10.1016/S0094-0143(05)70255-X
[238] S. Kikunaga, M. Arimori and M. Takahashi, “The Bioavailability of Calcium in Spinach and Calcium-Oxalate to Calcium-Deficient Rats,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1988, pp. 195-207. doi:10.3177/jnsv.34.195

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.