In vitro Bile Acid Binding of Mustard Greens, Kale, Broccoli, Cabbage and Green Bell Pepper Improves with Sautéing Compared with Raw or Other Methods of Preparation

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:214KB) PP. 951-958
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.37126    3,660 Downloads   6,148 Views   Citations


Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that other cooking methods could further improve the bile acid binding of various vegetables. Sautée cooking resulted in in vitro bile acid binding measured on a dry matter basis relative to cholestyramine of 14% for mustard greens and kale, 9% for broccoli, 8% for collard greens, 6% for cabbage, and 5% for green bell pepper. These results point to the significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) health promoting potential of mustard greens = kale > broccoli > collard greens > cabbage > green bell pepper. Sautéing significantly improved in vitro bile acid binding of mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper compared with steaming, boiling or raw (uncooked). Collard greens exhibited significantly higher bile acid binding by steaming compared with sautéing, boiling or raw. Data suggest that the cooking method with most heath promoting potential for mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper should be sautéing. Steaming should be used for collard greens as the cooking method. These green/leafy vegetables, when consumed regularly after sautéing, would promote a healthy lifestyle and have the potential to lower the risk of premature degenerative diseases.

Cite this paper

T. Kahlon, R. Milczarek and M. Chiu, "In vitro Bile Acid Binding of Mustard Greens, Kale, Broccoli, Cabbage and Green Bell Pepper Improves with Sautéing Compared with Raw or Other Methods of Preparation," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2012, pp. 951-958. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.37126.


[1] T. J. Key, G. E. Fraser, M. Thorogood, P. N. Appleby, V. Beral, G. Reeves, M. L. Burr, J. Chang-Claude, R. Frentzel-Beyme, J. W. Kuzma, J. Mann and K. McPherson, “Mortality in Vegetarians and Nonvegetarians: Detailed Findings from a Collaborative Analysis of 5 Prospective Studies,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 3, 1999, pp. 516S-524S.
[2] T. J. Key, P. N. Appleby, E. A. Spencer, R. C. Travis, N. E. Allen, M. Thorogood and J. I. Mann, “Cancer Incidence in British Vegetarians,” British Journal of Cancer, Vol. 101, No. 1, 2009, pp. 192-197. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605098
[3] USDA, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, “Dietary Guidelines for Americans,” 2010.
[4] K. A. Steinmetz and J. D. Potter, “Vegetables, Fruits, and Cancer Prevention: A Review,” Journal of American Dietetic Association, Vol. 96, No. 10, 1996, pp. 1027-1039. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(96)00273-8
[5] Y. Zhang, P. Talalay, C. G. Cho and G. H. Posner, “A Major Inducer of Anticarcinogenic Protective Enzymes from Broccoli: Isolation and Elucidation of Structure,” Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 89, No. 6, 1992, pp. 2399-2403. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.6.2399
[6] Y. Zhang, T. W. Kensler and C. G. Cho, “Anticarcinogenic Activities of Sulforaphane and Structurally Related Synthetic Norbornyl Isothiocyanates,” Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 91, No. 8, 1994, pp. 31473150.
[7] J. W. Fahey, Y. Zhang and P. Talalay, “Broccoli Sprouts: An Exceptionally Rich Source of Inducers of Enzymes that Protect against Chemical Carcinogens,” Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 94, No. 19, 1997, pp. 10367-10372. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.19.10367
[8] B. N. Ames, M. K. Shigenaga and T. M. Hagen, “Oxidants, Antioxidants, and the Degenerative Diseases of Aging,” Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 90, No. 17, 1993, pp. 7915-7922. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.17.7915
[9] S. S. Hecht, “Chemoprevention of Cancer by Isothiocyanates, Modifiers of Carcinogen Metabolism,” Journal of Nutrtion, Vol. 129, No. 3786, 1999, pp. 768S-774S.
[10] V. Costarelli, T. J. Key, P. N. Appleby, D. S. Allen, I. S. Fentiman and T. A. Sanders, “A Prospective Study of Serum Bile Acid Concentrations and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Post-Menopausal Women on the Island of Guernsey,” British Journal of Cancer, Vol. 86, No. 11, 2002, pp. 1741-1744. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600340
[11] C. D. Mathers, A. D. Lopez and C. J. L. Murray, “The Burden of Disease and Mortality by Condition: Data, Methods, and Results,” In: A. D. Lopez, C. D. Mathers, M. Ezzati, D. T. Jamison and C. J. L. Murray, Eds., Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors, Oxford University Press, New York, 2001.
[12] K. E. Suckling, G. M. Benson, B. Bond, A. Gee, A. Glen, C. Haynes and B. Jackson, “Cholesterol Lowering and Bile Acid Excretion in the Hamster with Cholestyramine Treatment,” Atherosclerosis, Vol. 89, No. 2, 1991, pp. 183-190. doi:10.1016/0021-9150(91)90059-C
[13] T. Nakamura and Y. Matsuzawa, “Drug Treatment of Yperlipoproteinemia: Bile Acid-Binding Resins,” Nippon Rinsho, Vol. 52, 1994, pp. 3266-3270.
[14] B. P. Daggy, N. C. O’Connell, G. R. Jerdack, B. A. Stinson and K. D. Setchell, “Additive Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Psyllium and Cholestyramine in the Hamster: Influence on Fecal Sterol and Bile Acid Profiles,” Journal Lipid Research, Vol. 38, 1997, pp. 491-502.
[15] T. S. Kahlon and F. I. Chow, “In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids by Rice Bran, Oat Bran, Wheat Bran and Corn Bran,” Cereal Chemistry, Vol. 77, No. 4, 2000, pp. 518-521. doi:10.1094/CCHEM.2000.77.4.518
[16] A. F. Hofmann, “The Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Acids in Man,” Clinical Gastroenterology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1977, pp. 3-24.
[17] H. C. Trowell, “Refined Foods and Disease,” Burkitt and Trowell Eds., Academic Press, London, 1975, pp. 195-226.
[18] E. K. Lund, J. M. Gee, J. C. Brown, P. J. Wood and I. T. Johnson, “Effect of Oat Gum on the Physical Properties of the Gastrointestinal Contents and on the Uptake of D-Galactose and Cholesterol by Rat Small Intestine in Vitro,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 62, No. 1, 1989, pp. 91-101. doi:10.1079/BJN19890010
[19] J. W. Anderson and A. E. Siesel, “Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Oat Products,” In: I. Furda and C. J. Brine, Eds., New Developments in Dietary Fiber: Physiological, Physiochemical, and Analytical Aspects, Plenum Press, New York, 1990, pp. 17-36.
[20] M. A. Eastwood and D. Hamilton, “Studies on the Adsorption of Bile Acids to Non-Absorbed Components of Diet,” Biochimica Biophysica Acta, Vol. 152, 1968, pp. 165-173.
[21] J. Balmer and D. V. Zilversmit, “Effect of Dietary Roughage on Cholesterol Absorption, Cholesterol Turnover and Steroid Excretion in the Rat,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 104, 1974, pp. 1319-1328.
[22] D. Kritchevsky and J. A. Story, “Binding of Bile Salts in Vitro by Nonnutritive Fiber,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 104, 1974, pp. 458-462.
[23] S. M. Potter, “Soy Protein and Cardiovascular Disease: The Impact of Bioactive Components in Soy,” Nutrition Reviews, Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 56, 1998, pp. 231-235.
[24] US Food and Drug Administration, “FDA Final Rule for Federal Labeling: Health Claims; Oats and Coronary Heart Disease,” Federal Register, Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 62, 1997, pp. 3584-3681.
[25] Joint Health Claims Initiative, “Final Report on Generic Health Claim for Oats and Reduction of Blood Cholesterol,” 2004.
[26] T. S. Kahlon and C. L. Woodruff, “In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids By Rice Bran, Oat Bran, Barley and β-Glucan Enriched Barley,” Cereal Chemistry, Vol. 80, No. 3, 2003, pp. 260-263. doi:10.1094/CCHEM.2003.80.3.260
[27] T. S. Kahlon and C. L. Woodruff, “In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids by Various Ready to Eat Breakfast Cereals,” Cereal Foods World, Vol. 48, 2003, pp. 73-75.
[28] T. S. Kahlon and Q. Shao, “In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids by Soy Bean (Glycine Max), Black Eye Bean (Vigna unguiculata), Garbanzo (Cicer arietinum) and Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus),” Food Chemistry, Vol. 86, No. 3, 2004, pp. 435-440. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.09.018
[29] T. S. Kahlon, G. E. Smith and Q. Shao, “In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids by Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), Black Gram (Vigna mungo), Bengal Gram (Cicer arietinum) and Moth Bean (Phaseolus aconitifolins),” Food Chemistry, Vol. 90, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 241-246. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.03.046
[30] T. S. Kahlon and G. E. Smith, “In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids by Spinach, Kale, Brussels sprouts, Broccoli, Mustard Greens, Peppers Green, Cabbage and Collards,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1531-1536. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.020
[31] T. S. Kahlon, M. M. Chiu and M. Chapman, “Steam Cooking Significantly Improves in Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Collard Greens, Kale, Mustard Greens, Broccoli, Green Bell Pepper and Cabbage,” Nutrition Research, Vol. 28, No. 6, 2008, pp. 351-357. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2008.03.007
[32] AOAC, “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 17th Edition, Arlington, 2000, pp. 78E-80E.
[33] AOAC, “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 15th Edition, Arlington, 1990, pp. 70-75.
[34] M. E. Camire, J. Zhao and D. A. Violette, “In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids by Extruded Potato Peels,” Journal Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 41, No. 12, 1993, pp. 23912394.
[35] M. C. Carey and D. M. Small, “The Characteristics of Mixed Micellar Solutions with Particular Reference to Bile,” American Journal Medicine, Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 49, 1970, pp. 590-608.
[36] S. S. Rossi, J. L. Converse and A. F. Hoffman, “High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Analysis of Conjugated Bile Acids in Human Bile: Simultaneous Resolution of Sulfated and Unsulfated Lithocholyl Amidates and the Common Conjugated Bile Acids,” Journal Lipid Research, Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 28, No. 5, 1987, pp. 589-595.
[37] R. G. D. Steel and J. H. Torrie, “Principles and Procedures of Statistics,” McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960.
[38] SAS Institute Inc., “SAS Online Doc 9.1.3 Carey,” 2004.
[39] E. W. Murphy, P. E. Criner and B. C. Gray, “Comparisons of Methods for Calculating Retentions of Nutrients in Cooked Foods,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1975, pp. 1153-1157. doi:10.1021/jf60202a021
[40] F. Khanum, S. Swamy, K. R. S. Krishna, K. Santhanam and K. R. Vishwanathan, “Dietary Fiber Content of Commonly Fresh and Cooked Vegetables Consumed in India,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2000, pp. 207-218. doi:10.1023/A:1008155732404

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.