Share This Article:

Isolation, Identification and Screening of Carotenoid-Producing Strains of Rhodotorula glutinis

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:297KB) PP. 627-633
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.35086    6,769 Downloads   13,014 Views   Citations


An attempt was made to isolate yeast strains from different sources (flowers, trees exudates, fruits and cheese) which have a fast growth rate and high content of carotenoids. Seventy cultures of pigmented yeast were isolated. Forty six yeast isolates were selected and identified by simplified identification method which showed that all isolates belong to Rhodotorula glutinis. These isolates were screened in two steps. Seventeen promising isolates of Rhodotorula glutinis were selected after the primary screening. Then 6 yeast isolates were chosen and passed through the second screening. The most promising isolate (isolated from pin cushion flower, Scabiosa atropurpurea) was selected according to its total carotenoids content expressed as torulene (μg?g–1 and μg?L–1). This isolate was reclassified using a number of morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics which revealed that the yeast isolate agree well with those of Rhodotorula glutinis Var. glutinis. Dry biomass, amount and proportion of individual carotenoids and lipid content of the selected identified yeast were determined.

Cite this paper

A. El-Banna, A. Abd El-Razek and A. El-Mahdy, "Isolation, Identification and Screening of Carotenoid-Producing Strains of Rhodotorula glutinis," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 5, 2012, pp. 627-633. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.35086.


[1] E. A. Johnson and W. A. Schroeder, “Microbial Carotenoids,” In: A. Fiecher, Ed., Advances Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology, Springer-Verlage, Heidelberg, Vol. 53, 1995, pp. 119-178.
[2] C. H. Hennekens, “β-Carotene Supplementation and Cancer Prevention,” Nutrition, Vol. 13, 1997, pp. 697-699. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(97)83019-5
[3] P. Rapta, M. Polovka, M. Zalibera, E. Breierova, I. Zitnanova, I. Marova and M. Certik, “Scavenging and Antioxidant Properties of Compounds Synthesized by Carotenogenic Yeasts Stressed by Heavy Metals, EPR Spin Trapping Study,” Biophysical Chemistry, Vol. 116, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.bpc.2005.01.006
[4] J. C. Bauernfeind, “Carotenoids, Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors, Technological and Nutritional Applications,” Academic Press, New York, 1981, p. 938.
[5] M. A. Borowitzka, “Micro-Algae as Sources of Fine Chemicals,” Microbiological Science, Vol. 3, 1986, pp. 372-375.
[6] L. Ninet and J. Renaut, “Carotenoids,” In: H. J. Pappler and D. Perimen, Eds., Microbial Technology, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, New York, Vol. 1, 1979, pp. 529-544.
[7] T. W. Goodwin, “Fungi,” In: T. W. Goodwin, Ed., The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids, Plants, Vol. 1, Chapman and Hall, London, 2nd Edition, 1980, pp. 257-290. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-5860-9_8
[8] A. Oren, “Review: A Hundred Years of Dunaliella Research 1905-2005,” Saline Systems, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2005, pp. 1-14.
[9] Z. Aksu and A. T. Eren, “Production of Carotenoids by Isolated Yeast of Rhodotorula glutinis,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2007, pp.107-113. doi:10.1016/j.bej.2007.01.004
[10] L. Dufossé, “Microbial Pigments, Encyclopedia of Microbiology,” 3rd Edition, 2009, pp. 457-471.
[11] H. J. Phaff, M. W. Miller, M. Yoneyama and M. Soneda, “A Comparative Study of the Yeast Florae Associated with Trees on the Japanese Islands and on the West Cost of North America,” Proceeding IV, IFS: Fermentation Technology Today, Osaka, 1972, pp. 759-774.
[12] T. Deak and L. R. Beuchat, “Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts,” CRS Press, New York, 1996, pp. 111-154.
[13] C. P. Kurtzman and J. W. Fell, “The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study,” 4th Edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1998, pp. 77-102.
[14] H. Sakaki, T. Nakanishi, K. Y. Satonaka, W. Miki, T. Fuijita and S. Komemushi, “Properties of a High-Toru larhodin Producing Mutant of Rhodotorula glutinis Cultivated under Oxidative Stress,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2000, pp. 203-205. doi:10.1016/S1389-1723(00)88739-3
[15] I. Costa, H. L. Martelli, I. M. De Silva and D. Pomeroy, “Production of β-carotene by Rhodotorula Strain,” Biotechnology Letter, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1987, pp. 373-375. doi:10.1007/BF01025808
[16] V. Perrier, E. Dubreucq and P. Galzy, “Fatty Acid and Carotenoid Composition of Rhodotorula Strains,” Archiv für Mikrobiologie, Vol. 164, 1995, pp. 173-179.
[17] F. M. Squina, F. Yamashita, J. L. Pereira and A. Z. Mercadante, “Production of Carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis in Culture Medium Supplemented with Sugar Cane Juice,” Food Biotechnology, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2002, pp. 227-235. doi:10.1081/FBT-120016776
[18] I. R. Maldonade, D. B. Rodriguez-Amaya and A. R. P. Scamparini, “Carotenoids of Yeasts Isolated from Brazilian Ecosystem,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 107, No. 1, 2008, pp. 145-150. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.075
[19] C. H. Luna-Flores, J. J. Ramrez-Cordova, C. Pelayo-Ortiz, R. Femat and E. J. Herrera-Lopez, “Batch and Fed-Batch Modeling of Carotenoids Production by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous Using Yucca fillifera Date Juice as Substrate,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2010, pp. 131-136.
[20] C. Saenge, B. Cheirsilp, T. T. Suksaroge and T. Bourtoom, “Potential Use of Oleaginous Red Yeast Rhodotorula glutinis for the Bioconversion of Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Plant to Lipids and Carotenoids,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2011, pp. 210-218.
[21] P. B. Bhosale and R. V. Gadre, “Production of β-Carotene by a Mutant of Rhodotorula glutinis,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2001, pp. 423 427. doi:10.1007/s002530000570
[22] J. P. Van der Walt, “Criteria and Methods Used in Classification,” In: J. Lodder, Ed., The Yeasts, North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, 1970, pp. 34-113.
[23] Kollmorgen Corporation, “Munsell Color Charts, for Plant Tissues,” Munsell Color Division, Maryland, 1972
[24] N. Haard, “Astaxanthin Formation by the Yeast Phaffia rhodozyma on Molasses,” Biotechnology Letter, Vol. 10, No. 9, 1988, pp. 609-614. doi:10.1007/BF01024710
[25] G. Frengova, E. Simova, K. Pavlova, D. M. Beshkova and D. Grigorova, “Formation of Carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis in Whey Ultrafiltrate,” Biotechnology Bioengineering, Vol. 44, No. 8, 1994, pp. 888-894. doi:10.1002/bit.260440804
[26] E. Stahl, “Thin-Layer Chromatography, A Laboratory Handbook,” Academic Press, INC., Publisher, New York, 1969, pp. 210-343.
[27] B. H. Davies, “Analysis of Carotenoid Pigments,” In: T. W. Goodwin, Ed, Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments, Academic Press, New York, 1965, pp. 489 532.
[28] Y. Pomeranz and C. E. Meloan, “Food Analysis, Theory and Practice,” AVI Publishing Company, INC. Westport, 1978, pp. 65-67.
[29] C. T. Shih and Y. D Hang, “Production of Carotenoids by Rhodotorula rubra from Sauerkraut Brine,” Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie, Vol. 29, No. 5-6, 1996, pp. 570-572.
[30] Z. Jacob, “Enrichment of Wheat Bran by Rhodotorula gracillis through Solid—State Fermentation,” Folia Microbiology, Vol. 36, 1991, pp. 86-91. doi:10.1007/BF02935828
[31] K. Mahattanatavee and S. Kulprecha, “Production of β-Carotene by Rhodotorula sp. Y 1621,” Microbial utilization of Renewable Resources, Vol. 7, 1991, pp. 295 300.
[32] P. B. Bhosale and R. V. Gadre, “β-Carotene Production in Sugar Cane Molasses by a Rhodotorula glutinis Mutant,” Journal of Industrial Microbiolology and Biotechnology, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2001, pp. 327-332. doi:10.1038/sj.jim.7000138
[33] H. L. Martelli, I. M. De Silva, N. O. Souza and D. Pomeroy, “Glycerol as Substrate for Biomass and β Carotene Production by Rhodotorula lactose,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 8, 1992, pp. 635-637. doi:10.1007/BF01238804
[34] G. Frengova, E. D. Simov and D. M. Beskhova, “Carotenoprotein and Exopolysaccharide Production by Co-Cultures of Rhodotorula glutinis and Lactobacillus helveticus,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnolology, Vol. 18, 1997, pp. 272-277. doi:10.1038/sj.jim.2900379
[35] M. Ozawa and M. Takahashi, “Isolation of Carotenogensis Suppressing Substance in Yeast Extract for Rhodotorula yeast,” Bulletin Faculty of Agriculture, Meiji University, Tokyo, Vol. 100, 1994, pp. 53-59.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.