Share This Article:

Extrinsic electromagnetic fields, low frequency (phonon) vibrations, and control of cell function: a non-linear resonance system

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:235KB) PP. 152-156
DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2008.13025    5,930 Downloads   11,774 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

Chou and Chen’s report in the 1970s suggested conformational protein adaptation (CPA) might be influenced by low frequency phonons acting as “a possible information system”. This report proposes the universal force of electromagnetism initiates the phonon system they cited as it per-turbs paramagnetic/diamagnetic dampers within the protein matrix to produce a quantized low frequency phonon signal series. (http://www.phy.ilstu.edu/~ren/phononsims/page3.html) The signal series is iteratively processed by the protein beta sub-unit, the system, to posi-tion the alpha sub-unit, the outcome, a classic non-linear resonance system resulting in con-formational protein adaptation (CPA). CPA “priming” enables a secondary ATP/redox driven power system to complete cell activity. The evolutionary appearance of these two systems reflects their hierarchy: 1) a low energy phonon driven information control circuit governed by principles of physics that, along with proteins, may have preceded planet earth, and 2), an ATP/redox power completion circuit directed by principles of chemistry that evolved in living systems 1 billion or more years after earth formed.

Cite this paper

A. Gordon, G. (2008) Extrinsic electromagnetic fields, low frequency (phonon) vibrations, and control of cell function: a non-linear resonance system. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 1, 152-156. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2008.13025.

References

[1] Adey WR. (1988) The cellular microenvironment and signaling through cell membranes. Progress in Clinical and Biological Re-search 257, 81-106.
[2] Adey WR. (1988) Cell Membranes: The electromagnetic environ-ment and cancer promotion. Neurochemistry Research 7, 671-677.
[3] Adey WR. 1993. Biologic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. Journal of Cellullar Biochemistry 4, 410-416.
[4] Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Watson JD. (1989) Molecular Biology of The Cell, 2nd Ed. New York:Garland Pub-lishing, preface.
[5] Angaridis P, Cotton FA, Murillo CA, Villagran D, Wang X. (2004). Paramagnetic precursors for supramolecular assemblies: selective syntheses, crystal structures, and electrochemical and magnetic properties of Ru2(O2CMe)4-n(formamidinate)nCl complexes, n = 1-4. Inorganic Chemistry. Dec 26, 8290-8300.
[6] Austin DW, Allen MS, McCollum JM, Dar RD, Wilgus JR, Sayler GS, Samatova NF, Cox CD, Simpson ML. (2006) Gene network shaping of inherent noise spectra. Nature 7076, 608-611.
[7] Balakrishnan S, Zondlo NJ. (2006) Design of a protein kinase-inducible domain. Journal of The American Chemical Soci-ety 17, 5590-5591.
[8] Baureus Koch CL, Sommarin M, Persson BR, Salford LG, Eber-hardt JL. (2003) Interaction between weak low frequency magnetic fields and cell membranes. Bioelectromagnetics 6, 395-402.
[9] Becker, RO. Exploring new horizons in electromedicine. Journal Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1, 17-18.
[10] Bertini I, Donaire A, Jimenez B, Luchinat C, Parigi G, Piccioli M, Poggi L. (2001) Paramagnetism-based versus classical constraints: an analysis of the solution structure of Ca Ln calbindin D9k. Jour-nal of Biomolecular NMR 2, 85-98.
[11] Blank M, Goodman R. (2004) Initial interactions in electromag-netic field-induced interactions. Journal of Cellular Physiology 3, 359-363.
[12] Carmody S, Wu XL, Lin H, Blank M Goodman R (2000) Cyto-protection by electromagnetic field-induced hsp70: a model for clinical appl;ication. J Cellular Biochem, 79: 453-459.
[13] Chou, K.C., (1984) Low-frequency vibration of DNA molecules. Biochemical Journal 221, 27-31.
[14] Chou, K.C., (1985) Low-frequency motions in protein molecules: beta-sheet and beta-barrel. Biophysical Journal 48, 289-297.
[15] Chou, K.C., (1988) Review: Low-frequency collective motion in biomacromolecules and its biological functions. Biophysical Chemistry 30, 3-48.
[16] Chou, K.C., (1989) Low-frequency resonance and cooperativity of hemoglobin. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 14, 212.
[17] Chou, K.C., and Chen, N.Y., (1977) The biological functions of low-frequency phonons. Scientia Sinica 20, 447-457.
[18] Cox CD, McCollum JM, Austin DW, Allen MS, Dar RD, Simpson ML. (2006) Frequency domain analysis of noise in simple gene circuits. Chaos 16, 26102
[19] Davies MS, Norris WT. (2004). Vibration as a possible explanation for putative electromagnetic field effects: a case study on marine diatoms. International Journal of Radiation Biology10, 709-718.
[20] Dihel LE, Smith-Sonneborn J, Middaugh CR. (1985) Effects of an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on the cell division rate and plasma membrane of Paramecium tetraurelia. Bioelectro-magnetics1, 61-71
[21] Eichwald C, Walleczek J. (1996) Activation-dependent and bi-phasic electromagnetic field effects: model based on cooperative enzyme kinetics in cellular signaling. Bioelectromagnetics 6, 427-435.
[22] Feagin, JE, Wurschler, MA, Ceon, R, Lai, HC, (1999) Magnetic Fields and Malaria, “Biologic Effects of Light: Proceedings of the Biologic Effects of Light Symposium”. Holick, M.F. and Jung E.G. (eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Higham MA, 343-349.
[23] Gibbs GM, Scanlon MJ, Swarbrick J, Curtis S, Gallant E, Dul-hunty AF, O'Bryan MK. (2006) The cysteine-rich secretory protein domain of Tpx-1 is related to ion channel toxins and regulates ry-anodine receptor Ca2+ signaling. J Biological Chemistry 7, 4156-4163.
[24] Gordon GA, (2007) Designed Electromagnetic Pulsed Therapy: Clinical Uses. J Cellular Physiology, 579-582.
[25] Hawking, S. (1988) A Brief History of Time. New York: Bantam Books. p. 61
[26] Halliday D, Resnick R, Walker J. (1993) Fundamentals of Physics, 4th Ed. New York City: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 399-400.
[27] Holzwarth AR, Muller MG. (1996). Energetics and kinetics of radical pairs in reaction centers from Phodobacter sphaeroides. A femtosecond transient study. Bioechemistry 36, 11820-11831.
[28] Ikehara T, Yamaguchi H, Hosokawa K, Houchi H, Park KH, Mi-nakuchi K, Kashimoto H, Kitamura M, Kinouchi Y, Yoshizaki K, Miyamoto H. (2005) Effects of a time-varying strong magnetic field on transient increase in Ca2+ release induced by cytosolic Ca2+ in cultured pheochromocytoma cells. Biochemica Bio-physica Acta 1-2, 8-16.
[29] Iwahara J, Clore GM. (2006) Detecting transient intermediates in macromolecular binding by NMR. Nature 7088, 1227-1230.
[30] Johnson MK, Morningstar JE, Oliver M, Frerman FE. (1987) Electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic circular dichroism studies of electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxireductase from pig liver. FEBS Letters 1, 129-133.
[31] Johnson MT, Waite LR, Nindl G. (2004) Non-invasive treatment of inflammation using EM fields: current and emerging therapeutic potential. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation 40, 469-474
[32] Kornhaber GJ, Snyder D, Moseley HN, Montelione GT. (2006) Identification of zinc-ligated cysteine residues based on 13Calpha and 13Cbeta chemical shift data. J Biomolecular NMR 4, 259-269.
[33] Kriegl JM, Bhattacharyya AJ, Nienhaus K, Deng P, Minkow O, Nienhaus GU. (2002) Ligand binding and protein dynamics in neu-roglobin. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences, USA 12, 7992-7997.
[34] Kriegl JM, Niehaus GU. (2004) Structural, dynamic, and energetic aspects of long-range electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction centers. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences, USA 1, 12312-12318.
[35] Kruglikov IL, Dertinger H.(1994) Stochastic resonance as a possi-ble mechanism of amplification of weak electric signals in living cells. Bioelectromagnetics 6, 539-547.
[36] Lawrence AF, Adey WR. (1982). Nonlinear wave mechanisms in interactions between excitable tissue and electromagnetic fields. Neurological Research 4, 115-153.
[37] Lawrence AF et al, (1987) The Nature of Phonons and Soliton Waves in Alpha Helical Proteins. Journal of Biophysics 51-5, 785-93.
[38] Liboff A. (2004) Toward an electromagnetic paradigm for biology and medicine, Journal Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1, 41-47
[39] Lieb RJ, Regelson W, West B, Jordan RL, DePaola DP. (1980) Effect of pulsed high frequency electromagnetic radiation on em-bryonic mouse tissue palate in vitro. Journal of Dental Research 10, 1649-1652.
[40] Lin H, Blank M, Rossol-Haseroth K, Goodman R. (2001) Regu-lating genes with electromagnetic response elements. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 1, 143-148.
[41] McLeod BR, Liboff AR, Smith SD. (1992) Electromagnetic gating in ion channels. Journal of Theoretical Biology 1, 15-31.
[42] Morozova OB, Korchak SE, Sagdeev RZ, Yurkovskaya AV. (2005) Time-resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies of structure and reactivity of methionine radical cations in aqueous solution as a function of pH. Journal of Physical Chemis-try A 45, 10459-10466.
[43] Mustafi SM, Mukherjee S, Chary KV, Del Bianco C, Luchinat C. (2004) Energetics and mechanism of Ca2+ displacement by lan-thanides in a calcium binding protein. Biochemistry 29, 9320-9331.
[44] Pedraza JM, van Oudenaarden A. (2005) Noise propagation in gene networks. Science 5717, 1965-1969.
[45] Rabenstein B, Ullmann GM, Knapp EW. (2000) Electron transfer between the quinones in the photosynthetic reaction center and its coupling to conformational changes. Biochemistry 34, 10487-10496.
[46] Ramikrishnan V, Henderson D, Busath DD. (2004) Applied field nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of ion exit from a beta-barrel model of the L-type calcium channel. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1, 1-8.
[47] Rosen AD. (2003). Mechanism of action of moderate-intensity static magnetic fields on biological systems. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics 2, 163-174.
[48] Schenle, A, Starkand, V. (1998) J Scientific Exploration 12, 455-468.
[49] Sobell HM, Tsai CC, Jain SC, Sakore TD. (1978) Conformational flexibility in DNA structure and its implication in understanding the organization of DNA in chromatin. Philos. Trans. R. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 11, 295-298.
[50] Strohm, C, Rikken, G.L, Wyder, P. (2005) Phenomenologic Evi-dence for the Phonon Hall Effect. Phys Rev Lett 95, 155901, 2005.
[51] Tandori J, Sebban P, Michel H, Baciou L. (1999) In Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers, mutation of proline L209 to aromatic residues in the vicinity of a water channel alters the dynamic cou-pling between electron and proton transfer processes. Biochemistry 40, 13179-13187.
[52] Ubbink M, Ejdeback M, Karlsson BG, Bendall DS. (1998) The structure of the complex of plastocyanin and cytochrome f, deter-mined by paramagnetic NMR and restrained rigid-body molecular dynamics. Structure 3, 323-335.
[53] Vendel AC, Rithner CD, Lyons BA, Horne WA. (2006) Solution structure of the N-terminal A domain of the human voltage-gated Ca2+channel beta4a subunit. Protein Science 2, 378-383.
[54] Vendel AC, Terry MD, Striegel AR, Iverson NM, Leuranguer V, Rithner CD.
[55] a) Voltage-gated Ca2+ channel beta4 subunit creates a uniquely folded
[56] b) N-terminal protein binding domain with cell-specific ex-pression in the
[57] c) cerebellar cortex. Journal of Neuroscience10, 2635-2644.
[58] Wang M, Borchardt RT, Schowen RL, Kuczera K. (2005) Domain motion and the open-to-closed conformational transition of an en-zyme: a normal mode analysis . . . Biochemistry 17, 7228-7239.
[59] Zumdahl S. Chemical Principles. (1992) Lexington MA: DC Heath and Co. p 980.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.