Share This Article:

Self-evaluated health of married people in Jamaica

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:302KB) PP. 332-341
DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.14055    4,579 Downloads   8,508 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment


Background: In the Caribbean in particular Ja-maica, no study has been done to examine married respondents in order to understand reasons for their greater health status. The ob-jectives of the current study are: 1) examine the sociodemographic characteristics of married people in Jamaica; 2) evaluate self-rated health status of married people in Jamaica; 3) deter-mine factors that account for good health status of married people and 4) provide public health practitioners with empirical studies that can be used to formulate policies for men in particular non-married men in Jamaica. Materials and me- thods: Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 6,783 respondents. It was a nationally representative sample. Logistic re-gression analysis was used to ascertain the correlates of health status. Results: The mean age for women in marriage in Jamaica was 6 years lower than that of men. The correlates of good health status (including moderate health) of respondents in descending order were self- reported illness (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.01- 0.17); age (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.93-0.96); income (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.05-1.66) and sex of respon-dents (Or = 1.14-2.32)—χ2(df = 4) = 383.2, P < 0.05. The four variables accounted for 44.4% of the explanatory power of the model; with self-reported illness accounting for 32.5% of the explanatory power. Conclusion: Marriage pro-vides greater access to more socioeconomic resources for its participants as well as increase men’s unwillingness to visit medical care prac-titioners.

Cite this paper

A. Bourne, P. (2009) Self-evaluated health of married people in Jamaica. Health, 1, 332-341. doi: 10.4236/health.2009.14055.


[1] Moore, E.G., Rosenberg, M.W. and McGuinness, D. (1997) Growing old in Canada: Demographic and geo-graphic perspectives. Nelson, Ontario.
[2] Lillard, L.A. and Panis, C.W.A. (1996) Marital status and mortality: The role of health. Demography, 33, 313-327.
[3] Smith, K.R. and Waitzman, N.J. (1994) Double jeopardy: Interaction effects of marital and poverty status on risk of mortality. Demography, 31,487-507.
[4] Ganster, D.C, Fusilier, M.R. and Mayers, B.T. (1986) The social support and health relationship: Is there a gender difference. J of Occupational Psychology, 59, 145-153.
[5] Koo, J., Rie, J. and Park, K. (2004) Age and gender dif-ferences in affect and subjective wellbeing. Geriatrics and Gerontology Int, 4, S268-S270.
[6] Ross, C.E., Mirowsky, J. and Goldsteen, K. (1990) The impact of the family on health. J of Marriage and the family, 52, 1059-1078.
[7] Gore, W.R. (1973) Sex, marital status and mortality. Am J of Sociology, 30, 189-208.
[8] Umberson, D. (1987) Family status and health behaviors: Social control as a dimension of social integration. J of Health and Soci Behavior, 28, 306-319.
[9] Goldman, N. (1993) Marriage selection and mortality patterns: Inferences and fallacies. Demography, 30, 189- 208.
[10] Bourne, P.A. (2008) Medical sociology: Modeling well-being for elderly people in Jamaica. West Indian Med J, 57, 596-604.
[11] Bourne, P.A. (2008) Health determinants: Using secon-dary data to model predictors of well-being of Jamaicans. West Indian Med J, 57, 476-480.
[12] Bourne, P.A. and McGrowder, D.A. (2009) Rural health in Jamaica: Examining and refining the predictive factors of good health status of rural residents. Rural and Re-mote Health J, 9, 116, Online.
[13] Bourne, P.A. (2009) Socio-demographic determinants of health care-seeking behaviour, self-reported illness and self-evaluated health status in Jamaica. Int J of Collabo-rative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health, 4, 101-130.
[14] Smock, P., Manning, W.D. and Gupta, S. (1999) The effects of marriage and divorce on women’s economic well-being. Am Sociological Review, 64, 794-812.
[15] Mastekaasa, A. (1992) Marriage and psychological well- being: Some evidence on selection into marriage. J of Marriage and the Family, 54, 901-911.
[16] Diener, E. (1984) Subjective wellbeing. Psychological bulletin, 95, 542-575.
[17] Lee, G.R., Seccombe, K. and Sehehan, C.L. (1991) Marital status and personal happiness: An analysis of trends data. J of Marriage and the Family, 53, 839-844.
[18] Elwert, F. and Christakis, N.A. (2008) The Effect of widowhood on mortality by the causes of death of both spouses. Am. J. Public Health, 98, 2092-2098.
[19] Havens, B. (1995) Long-term care diversity within the care continuum. Canadian J of Aging, 14, 245-262.
[20] Koskinen, S., Joutsenniemi, K., Martelin, T. and Marti-kainen, P. (2007). Mortality differences according to liv-ing arrangements. Int J Epidemiol, 36, 1255-1264.
[21] Martikainen, P. and Valkonen, T. (1996) Mortality after death of spouse in relation to duration of bereavement in Finland. J of Epidemiol and Community Health, 50, 264-268.
[22] Bourne, P.A. (2009) Dichotomising poor self-reported health status: Using secondary cross-sectional survey data for Jamaica. North American J of Med Sci, 1(6), 295-302.
[23] World Health Organization (WHO) (2009) World health statistics, 2009. WHO, Geneva.
[24] Christakis, N.A. and Allison, P.A. (2006) Mortality after hospitalization of a spouse. The New England J of Medi-cine, 354, 719-730.
[25] Stutzer, A. and Frey, B.S. (2006) Does marriage make people happy or do happy people get married. J of So-cial-Economic, 34, 326-347.
[26] Ben-Shlomo, Y., Smith, G.D., Shipley, M. and Marmot, M.G. (1993) Magnitude and cause of mortality differ-ences between married and unmarried men. J of Epide-mio and Community Health, 47, 200-205.
[27] Cheung, Y.B. (2000) Marital status and mortality in Brit-ish women a longitudinal study. Int J Epidemiol, 29, 93-99.
[28] Cohen, L. and Holliday, M. (1982) Statistics for Social Sciences. Harper & Row, London.
[29] Hair, J.F., Black, B., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E. and Tatham, R.L. (2005) Multivariate data analysis, 6th edi-tion. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
[30] Mamingi, N. (2005) Theoretical and empirical exercises in econometrics. University of the West Indies Press, Kingston.
[31] Zar, J.H. (1999) Biostatistical analysis, 4th edition. Pren-tice Hall, New Jersey.
[32] Hamilton, J.D. (1994) Time series analysis. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
[33] Kleinbaum, D.G., Kupper, L.L. and Muller, K.E. (1998) Applied regression analysis and other multivariable methods. PWS-Kent Publishing, Boston.
[34] Cohen, J. and Cohen, P. (1983) Applied regres-sion/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey.
[35] Koutsoyiannis, A. (1977) Theory of econometrics, 2nd ed. MacMillan Publishing, New York.
[36] Hambleton, I.R., Clarke, K., Broome, H.L., Fraser, H.S., Brathwaite, F. and Hennis, A.J. (2005) Historical and current correlates of self-reported health status among elderly persons in Barbados. Revista Panamericana de Salud P?blica, 17(5-6), 342-352.
[37] Grossman, M. (1972) The demand for health—a theo-retical and empirical investigation. National Bureau of Economic Research, New York.
[38] Smith, J.P. and Kington, R. (1997) Demographic and economic correlates of health in old age. Demography, 34, 159-70.
[39] Idler, E.L. and Benjamin, Y. (1997) Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies. J of Health and Social Behavior, 38, 21-37.
[40] Idler, E.L. and Kasl, S. (1995) Self-ratings of health: Do they also predict change in functional ability? J of Ger-ontology, 50B(6), S344-S353.
[41] Finnas, F., Nyqvist, F. and Saarela, J. (2008) Some meth-odological remarks on self-rated health. The Open Public Health J, 1, 32-39.
[42] Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN) (2006) Demo-graphic statistics, 2005. STATIN, Kingston.
[43] Marmot, M. (2002) The influence of income on health: Views of an Epidemiologist. Does money really matter, or is it a marker for something else? Health Affairs, 21, 31-46.
[44] Herzog, A.R. (1989) Physical and mental health in older women: Selected research issues and data sources. In: Hendricks J.A., editor: Health and economic status of older women: Research issues and data sources. Bay-wood Publishing, New York.
[45] Schoen, C., Davis, K., DesRoches, C. and Shekhdar, A. (1998) The health of adolescent boys: Commonwealth Fund survey findings. Commonwealth Fund, New York,
[46] Taff, N. and Chepngeno, G. (2005). Determinants of health care seeking for children illnesses in Nairobi slums. Tropical Medicine and Int Health, 10, 240-45.
[47] Kposowa, A.J. (2003) Divorced and suicide risk. J Epidemiol Community Health, 57, 993.
[48] Lynch, J.J. (1977) The broken heart: The medical consequences of loneliness. Basic Books, New York,.
[49] Abel, W.D., Bourne, P.A., Hamil, H.K., Thompson, E.M., Martin, J.S., Gibson, R.C. and Hickling, F.W. (2009). A public health and suicide risk in Jamaica from 2002 to 2006. North American J of Med Sci, 1(3), 142-147.
[50] Stroup, A. and Pollock, G. (1994) Economic consequences of martial dissolution. J of Divorce and Remarriage, 22, 37-54.
[51] Lorenz, F.O., Simons, R.L., Conger, R.D., Elder, G.H.Jr., Johnson, C. and Chao, W. (1997) Married and recently divorced mothers’ stressful events and distress: Tracing change across time. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 219-232.
[52] Cano, A. and O’Leary, K.D. (2000) Infidelity and separations precipitate major depressive episodes and symptoms of nonspecific depression and anxiety. J of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 774-781.
[53] Christian-Herman, J.L., O’Leary, K.D. and Avery-Leaf, S. (2001) The impact of severe negative events in marriage on depression. J of Soci and Clinical Psychology, 20, 25-44.
[54] Kendler, K.S., Thornton, L.M. and Gardner, C.O. (2000) Stressful life events and previous episodes in the etiology of major depression in women: An evaluation of the “kindling” hypothesis. Am J of Psychiatry, 157, 1243-1251.
[55] Prause, W., Saletu, B., Tribl, G.G., Rieder, A., Rosenger-ger, A., Bolitschek, J., Holzinger, B., Kaplhammer, G., Datschning, H., Kunze, M., Popovic, R., Graetzhofer, E. and Zeitlhofer J. (2005) Effects of socio-demographic variables on health-related quality of life determined by the quality of life index—German version. Human psy-chopharmacology Clinical and Experimental, 20, 359-365.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.