Two of Maxwell’s equations of electrodynamics are:
, where E
are electric field, magnetic field, and electric charge density respectively. A fundamental question that the physics community is perplexed with since the 19C is this: Why the second of these equations is not
is the magnetic charge density? Put in a slightly different way, it is an empirical fact of nature that magnets have two poles, namely, north and south poles. Why is it that objects with a single north or south pole do not appear to exist? No one has ever observed an isolated excess of one kind of magnetic charge—an isolated north pole, for example! Further, there does not exist any theoretical explanation why magnetic charges do not exist. The only conclusion that can be drawn from the more than one hundred and fifty years of fruitless search is that ordinary matter consists of electric charges (electric monopoles) and not magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles)! In this paper, we disprove this conclusion by showing that magnetic monopoles exist even though we cannot isolate them.