Share This Article:

Not All Shrivels Are Created Equal—Morpho-Anatomical and Compositional Characteristics Differ among Different Shrivel Types That Develop during Ripening of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Berries

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1240KB) PP. 879-898
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.37105    5,194 Downloads   9,627 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

An understanding of physiological disorders associated with ripening of fruits triggered by abiotic stress relies on anatomical and physico-chemical analyses, as it provide insights into their origin and probable causes. The objective of this study was to analyze different ripening disorders of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries by dissecting their morpho-anatomy, shriveling nature, and composition. Four well-defined disorders—sunburn, prolonged dehydration (PD), late-season bunch stem necrosis (LBSN), and berry shrivel (BS) were analyzed in field-grown grapevines of the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. Early bunch stem necrosis (EBSN) that occurred before ripening was also included in the study. Unlike healthy spherical berries, the pericarp of disordered berries except for sunburn shriveled causing concomitant reductions in fresh weight and volume. The exocarp of PD berries developed well-ordered indentations as distinct from the wrinkles in LBSN berries, whereas BS berries were flaccid with numerous skin folds. The epicuticular wax occurred as upright platelets in all shrivel forms excluding the sun-exposed hemisphere of sunburned berries. A chlorophyllous inflorescence framework persisted in all shrivel forms but in LBSN, wherein the necrotic regions developed tylosis. Unlike the translucent mesocarp of healthy, sunburned, and PD berries, the mesocarp was collapsed in BS and LBSN berries, nevertheless all had well-developed seeds. The composition of healthy berries was optimal, whereas the disordered berries were compositionally distinct from each other, which as a whole differed from the healthy berries. The BS berries had the lowest sugar content, and although sugar concentration was higher in LBSN, sunburned and PD berries, sugar amount per berry was highest in the healthy berries, the same was true for hexoses. Healthy and BS berries exhibited highest amounts of tartaric acid followed by sunburn and PD berries, whereas the LBSN berries had the lowest values. Conversely, healthy and PD berries had the highest amounts of malic acid followed by LBSN, sunburn and BS berries, which collectively displayed similar amounts. The PD berries exhibited the highest calcium content followed by LBSN, healthy, and finally BS and sunburned berries. A linear relationship existed between potassium (K) and pH of the berries. The PD berries had the highest amounts of K followed by healthy, sunburn, LBSN, and BS berries. Overall, the results reported here provided combined morpho-anatomical and compositional analyses of different shrivel types that occurred during a single growing season. Such analysis is needed to make a progress on understanding these ripening disorders culminating in the development of remedial measures.

Cite this paper

B. Bondada and M. Keller, "Not All Shrivels Are Created Equal—Morpho-Anatomical and Compositional Characteristics Differ among Different Shrivel Types That Develop during Ripening of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Berries," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2012, pp. 879-898. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.37105.

References

[1] L. Adams-Phillips, C. Barry, and J. Giovannoni, “Signal Transduction Systems Regulating Fruit Ripening,” Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 9, No. 7, 2004, pp. 331-338. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2004.05.004
[2] C. J. Brady, “Fruit Ripening,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology, Vol. 38, 1987, pp. 155-178. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.38.060187.001103
[3] R. Dudley, “Ethanol, Fruit Ripening, and Historical Origins of Human Alcoholism in Primate Frugivory,” Integrative and Compara-tive Biology, Vol. 44, No. 9, 2004, pp. 315-323. doi:10.1093/icb/44.4.315
[4] C. Conde, P. Silva, N. Fontes, A. C. P. Dias, R. M. Tavares, M. J. Sousa, A. Agasse, S. Delrot, and H. Gerós, “Biochemical Changes throughout Grape Berry Development and Fruit and Wine Quality,” Food, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007, pp. 1-22.
[5] C. B. Watkins, “The Effect of 1-MCP on the Development of Physiological Storage Disorders in Hor-ticultural Crops,” Stewart Postharvest Review, Vol. 2, No. 11, 2007, pp. 1-6. doi:10.2212/spr.2007.2.11
[6] B. Eh-sani-Moghaddam and J. DeEll, “Correlation and Path-Coefficient Analyses of Ripening Attributes and Storage Disorders in ‘Ambrosia’ and ‘Empire’ Apples,” Post Harvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 51, 2009, pp. 168-173. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2008.07.006
[7] S. Guichard, N. Bertin, C. Leonard and C. Gary, “Tomato Fruit Quality in Rela-tion to Water and Carbon Fluxes,” Agronomie, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2001, pp. 385-392. doi:10.1051/agro:2001131
[8] M. J. Ceponis, R. A. Cappel-lini, J. M. Wells and G. W. Lightner, “Disorders in Plum, Peach, and Nectarine Shipments to the New York Market,” 1972-1985,” Plant Disease, Vol. 71, No. 10, 1987, pp. 947-952.
[9] R. Singh, R. R. Sharma and S. K. Tyagi, “Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Calcium and Boron Influ-ences Physiological Disorders, Fruit Yield and Quality of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.),” Scientia Horticul-turae, Vol. 112, No. 2, 2007, pp. 215-220. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2006.12.019
[10] O. Jaillon, J. M. Aury, B. Noel, et al., “The Grapevine Genome Sequence Suggests Ancestral Hexaploidization in Major Angiosperm Phyla,” Nature, Vol. 449, No. 7162, 2007, pp. 463-468. doi:10.1038/nature06148
[11] S. Pilati, M. Perazzolli, A. Malossini, A. Cestaro, L. Demattè, P. Fontana, A. D. Ri, R. Viola, R. Velasco and C. Moser, “Genome-Wide Transcrip-tional Analysis of Grapevine Berry Ripening Reveals a Set of Genes Similarly Modulated during Three Seasons and the Oc-currence of an Oxidative Burst at vèraison,” BMC Genomics, Vol. 8, No. 428, 2007,
[12] M. Giribaldi and M. M. Giuffrida, “Heard It through the Grapevine: Proteomic Perspective on Grape and Wine,” Journal of Proteomics, Vol. 73, No. 9, 2010, pp. 1647-1655. doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2010.05.002
[13] B. G. Coombe, “Research on Development and Ripening of the Grape Berry,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1992, pp. 101-110.
[14] E. Hughes, A. Rey-nolds and B. Bondada, “Bunch Stem Necrosis,” Wine East, March-April, Vol. 35, pp. 18-25.
[15] M. Krasnow, N. Weis, R. J. Smith, M. J. Benz, M. A. Matthews and K. A. Shackel, “In-ception, Progression, and Compositional Consequences of a Berry Shrivel Disorder,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 60, No. 1, 2009, pp. 24-34.
[16] M. Keller, “The Science of Grapevines – Anatomy and Physiology,” El-sevier: Academic Press, Burlington, 2010.
[17] G. Hall, B. R. Bondada and M. Keller, “Loss of Rachis Cell Viability Is As-sociated with Ripening Disorders in Grapes,” Journal of Ex-perimental Botany, Vol. 62, No. 3, 2011, pp. 1145-1153. doi:10.1093/jxb/erq355
[18] M. G. McCarthy, “Weight Loss from Ripening Berries of Shiraz Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz),” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1999, pp. 10-16. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0238.1999.tb00145.x
[19] S. Y. Rogiers, J. M. Hatfield, V. G. Jaudzems, R. G. White and M. Keller, “Grape Berry cv. Shiraz Epicuticular Wax and Transpiration during Ripening and Preharvest Weight Loss,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 55, No. 2, 2004, pp. 121-127.
[20] M. A. Matthews and K. A. Shackel, “Growth and Water Transport in Fleshy Fruit,” In: N. M. Holbrook and M. A. Zwieniecki, Eds., Vascular Transport in Plants, Elsevier, Academic Press, Boston, 2005, pp. 189-197. doi:10.1016/B978-012088457-5/50011-3
[21] H. A. A. Hifny and G. Alleweldt, “Untersuchungen zur Stiell?hme der Reben. I. Die Symptomatologie der Krankhei,” Vitis, Vol. 10, 1972, pp. 298-313.
[22] M. Knoll, D. Achleitner, “Sugar Accumulation in Zweigelt Grapes as Affected by Traubenwelke,” Vitis, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2010, pp. 101-106.
[23] M. N. Krasnow, M. A. Matthews, R. J. Smith, J. Benz, E. Weber and K. A. Shackel, “Distinctive Symptoms Differentiate Four Common Types of Berry Shrivel Disorder in Grape,” California Agriculture, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2010, pp. 155-159. doi:10.3733/ca.v064n03p155
[24] B. Bondada, “To Shrivel or Not to Shrivel—Toward an Understanding of Ripening Related Physiological Disorders of Grape Berry,” Proceedings of the International Symposium GiESCO, Asti-Alba, 2011, pp. 473-475.
[25] S. E. Ruzin, “Plant Microtechnique and Microscopy,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999.
[26] W. J. Hardie, T. P. O’Brien and V. G. Jaudzems, “Morphology, Anatomy and Development of the Pericarp after Anthesis in Grape, Vitis vinifera L.,” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1996, pp. 97-142. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0238.1996.tb00101.x
[27] B. R. Bondada, “Anomalies in Structure, Growth Characteristics, and Nutritional Composition as Induced by 2, 4-D Drift Phytotoxicity in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves and Clusters,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 136, No. 3, 2011, pp. 165-176.
[28] B. G. Coombe, “The Development of Fleshy Fruits,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology, Vol. 27, 1976, pp. 507-528. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.27.060176.001231
[29] R. I. Grange, “Water Relations and Growth of Tomato Pericarp Tissue,” Plant Cell and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 11, 1995, pp. 1311-1318. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.1995.tb00190.x
[30] H. Wada, K. A. Shackel and M. A. Matthews, “Fruit Ripening in Vitis vinifera: Apoplastic Solute Accumulation Accounts for Pre-Veraison Turgor Loss in Berries,” Planta, Vol. 227, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1351-1361. doi:10.1007/s00425-008-0707-3
[31] L. Y. Zhang, Y. B. Peng, S. Pelleschi-Travie, Y. Fan, Y. F. Lu, Y. M, Lu, X. P. Gao, Y. Y. Shen, S. Delrot and D. P. Zhang, “Evidence for apoplasmic Phloem Unloading in Developing Apple Fruit,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 135, No. 1, 2004, pp. 574-586. doi:10.1104/pp.103.036632
[32] X. Y. Zhang, X. L. Wang, X. Wang, G. H. Xia, Q. H. Pan, R. C. Fan, F. Q. Wu, X. C. Yu and D. P. Zhang, “A Shift of Phloem Unloading from Symplasmic to Apoplasmic Pathway Is Involved in Developmental Onset of Ripening in Grape Berry,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 1, No. 142, 2006, pp. 220-232. doi:10.1104/pp.106.081430
[33] D. S. Skene, “The Fine Structure of Apple, Pear, and Plum Fruit Surfaces, Their Changes during Ripening, and Their Responses to Polishing,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1963, pp. 581-587.
[34] J. H. Bowen and C. B. Watkins, “Fruit Maturity, Carbohydrate and Mineral Content Relationships with Watercore in ‘Fuji’ Apples,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1997, pp. 31-38. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(97)01409-9
[35] C. P. Sideris and B. H. Krauss, “Physiological Studies on the Factors Influencing the Quality of Pineapple Fruits. I. Physicochemical Variations in the Tissue of Ripe Pineapple Fruits,” Pineapple Quarterly, Vol. 3, 1933, pp. 82-114.
[36] B. W. du Plessis, “Cellular Factors That Affect Table Grape Berry Firmness,” MS Thesis, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2008.
[37] S. M. Glidewell, B. Williamson, B. A. Goodman, J. A. Chudek and G. Hunter, “An NMR Microscopic Study of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.),” Protoplasma, Vol. 198, No. 1-2, 1997, pp. 27-35. doi:10.1007/BF01282128
[38] J. Tilbrook and S. D. Tyerman, “Cell Death in Grape Berries: Varietal Differences Linked to Xylem Pressure and Berry Weight Loss,” Functional Plant Biology, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2008, pp. 173-184. doi:10.1071/FP07278
[39] M. Keller, J. P. Smith, and B. R. Bondada, “Ripening Grape Berries Remain Hydraulically Connected to the Shoot,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 57, No. 11, 2006, pp. 2577-2587. doi:10.1093/jxb/erl020
[40] J. F. Gallander, “Chemistry of Grapes and Other Fruits as the Raw Materials Involved in Winemaking,” In: A. D. Webb, Ed., Advances in Chemistry Series No. 137, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 1974, pp. 11-49.
[41] M. Fougere-Rifot, H. S. Park, and J. Bouard, “Berry Pericarp Ontogenesis from Fertilization to Maturity of Vitis vinifera L. var. Merlot,” The Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1997, pp. 109-118.
[42] B. R. Bondada, M. A. Matthews and K. A. Shackel, “Functional Xylem Exists in Post-Veraison Grape Berry,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 56, No. 421, 2005, pp. 2949-2957. doi:10.1093/jxb/eri291
[43] B. Bondada and M. Keller, “Morpho-Anatomical Symptomatology and Osmotic Behavior of Grape Berry Shrivel,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 137, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-11.
[44] P. K. Diggle, “Architectural Effects and the Interpretation of Patterns of Fruit and Seed Development,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol. 26, 1995, pp. 531-552. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.26.110195.002531
[45] B. G. Coombe, “Grape Berry as a Sink,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 239, 1989, pp. 149-158.
[46] Z. W. Dai, P. Vivin, F. Barrieu, N. Ollat and S. Delrot, “Physiological and Modelling Approaches to Understand Water and Carbon Fluxes during Grape Berry Growth and Quality Development: A Review,” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Vol. 16, No. S1, 2010, pp. 70-85. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0238.2009.00071.x
[47] J. Ackermann, M. Fischer and R. Amado, “Changes in Sugars, Acids, and Amino Acids during Ripening and Storage of Apples (cv. Glockenapfel),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 40, No. 7, 1992, pp. 1131-1134. doi:10.1021/jf00019a008
[48] K. Boudehri, A. Bendahmane, G. Cardinet, C. Troadec, A. Moing and E. Dirlewanger, “Phenotypic and Fine Genetic Characterization of the D Locus Controlling Fruit Acidity in Peach,” BMC Plant Biology, Vol. 9, 2009, Article No. 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-9-59
[49] W. M. Kliewer, “Concentration of Tartrates, Malates, Glucose and Fructose in the Fruits of the Genus Vitis,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 18, 1967, pp. 87-96.
[50] A. Amorós, P. Zapata, M. T. Pretel, M. A. Botella and M. Serrano, “Physico-Chemical and Physiological Changes during Fruit Development and Ripening of Five Loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica Lindl.) Cultivars,” Food Science and Technology International, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2003, pp. 43-51. doi:10.1177/1082013203009001007
[51] C. Davies and S. P. Robinson, “Sugar Accumulation in Grape Berries. Cloning of Two Putative Vacuolar Invertase cDNAs and Their Expression in Grapevine Tissues,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 111, No. 1, 1996, pp. 275-283. doi:10.1104/pp.111.1.275
[52] G. E. Neal and A. C. Hulme, “The Organic Acid Metabolism of Bramley’s Seedling Apple Peel,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1958, pp. 142-157. doi:10.1093/jxb/9.1.142
[53] S. Y. Rogiers, D. H. Greer, J. M. Hatfield, B. Orchard and M. Keller, “Mineral Sinks Within Ripening Grape Berries,” Vitis, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2006, pp. 115-123.
[54] B. Mpelasoka, D. P. Schachtman and M. T. Treeby, “A Review of Potassium Nutrition in Grapevines with Special Emphasis on Berry Accumulation,” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2003, pp. 154-168. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0238.2003.tb00265.x
[55] D. B. Bradley, “Varietal and Location Influence on Acid Composition of Tomato Fruit,” Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1964, pp. 213-216. doi:10.1021/jf60133a006
[56] A. Lang, “Turgor Regulated Translocation,” Plant, and Cell & Environment, Vol. 6, No. 9, 1983, pp. 683-689.
[57] S. Rogiers, M. Keller, B. Holzapfel and J. M. Virgona, “Accumulation of Potassium and Calcium by Ripening Berries on Field Vines of Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. Shiraz,” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Vol. 6, 2000, pp. 240-243. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0238.2000.tb00184.x
[58] F. J. M. Maathuis, “Physiological Functions of Mineral Macronutrients,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2009, pp. 250-258. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2009.04.003
[59] K. J. Nunan, I. M. Sims, A. Bacic, S. P. Robinson and G. B. Fincher, “Isolation and Characteristics of the Mesocarp of the Mature Grape Berries (Vitis vinifera L.),” Planta, Vol. 203, No. 1, 1997, pp. 90-100.
[60] I. B. Ferguson, “Calcium in Plant Senescence and Fruit Ripening,” Plant, Cell and Environment, Vol. 7, No. 6, 1984, pp. 477-489. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.1984.tb01438.x
[61] J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon and T. P. Russell, “Capillary Wrinkling of Floating Thin Polymer Films,” Science, Vol. 317, No. 650, 2007, pp. 650-653. doi:10.1126/science.1144616
[62] H. E. Nordby and R. E. McDonald, “Variations in Chilling Injury and Epicuticular Wax Composition of White Grapefruit with Canopy Position and Fruit Development during the Season,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 43, No. 7, 1995, pp. 1828-1833. doi:10.1021/jf00055a015
[63] D. Knuth and R. Stosser, “Comparison of the Sun-Exposed and Shaded Side of Apple Fruit I. Cuticle, Epidermal Cell Size and Surface Waxes,” Gartenbauwissenschaft, Vol. 52, 1987, pp. 49-57.
[64] J. V. Possingham, “Surface Wax Structure in Fresh and Dried Sultana Grapes,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 36, No. 5, 1972, pp. 993-996.
[65] C. A. Torres, P. K. Andrews and N. M. Davies, “Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Fruit Exocarp of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Mutants to Natural Photo-Oxidative Conditions,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 57, No. 9, 2006, pp. 1933-1947. doi:10.1093/jxb/erj136
[66] K. Mori, N. Goto-Yamamoto, M. Kitayama and K. Hashizume, “Loss of Anthocyanins in Red Wine Grape Varieties under High Temperature,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 58, No. 8, 2007, pp. 1935-1945. doi:10.1093/jxb/erm055
[67] D. H. Greer, S. Y. Rogiers and C. C. Steel, “Susceptibility of Chardonnay Grapes to Sunburn,” Vitis, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2006, pp. 147-148.
[68] J. N. Wünsche, J. W. Palmer and D. H. Greer, “Effect of Crop Load on Fruiting and Gas Exchange Characteristics of ‘Braeburn’/M.26 Apple Trees at Full Canopy,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 125, No. 1, 2000, pp. 93-99.
[69] A. B. Woolf, J. H. Bowen and I. B. Ferguson, “Preharvest Exposure to the Sun Influences Postharvest Responses of ‘Hass’ Avocado Fruit,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1999, pp. 143-153. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(98)00077-5
[70] C. A. Schroeder, “Temperature Relations in Fruit Tissues under Extreme Conditions,” Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 87, 1965, pp. 199-203.
[71] L. U. Opara and T. Tadesse, “Fruit Growth and Mineral Element Accumulation in Pacific Rose Apple in Relation to Orchard Management Factors and Calyx-End Splitting,” Journal of Plant Nutrition, Vol. 23, No. 8, 2000, pp. 1079-1093. doi:10.1080/01904160009382083
[72] A. B. Woolf and I. B. Ferguson, “Postharvest Responses to High Fruit Temperatures in the Field,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2000, pp. 7-20. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(00)00161-7
[73] M. Saudreau, H. Sinoquet, O. Santin, et al., “A 3D Model for Simulating the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Temperature within Ellipsoidal Fruit,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 147, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.06.006
[74] R. E. Smart and T. R. Sinclair, “Solar Heating of Grape Berries and Other Spherical Fruit,” Agricultural Meteorology, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1976, pp. 241-259. doi:10.1016/0002-1571(76)90029-7
[75] S. E. Spayd, J. M. Tarara, D. L. Mee and J. C. Ferguson, “Separation of Sunlight and Temperature Effects on the Composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Berries,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2002, pp. 171-182.
[76] R. E. Smart, “Principles of Grapevine Canopy Microclimate Manipulation with Implications for Yield and Quality. A Review,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1985, pp. 230-239.
[77] L. E. Schrader, J. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Xu, D. C. Elfving and C. Kahn, “Postharvest Changes in Internal Fruit Quality in Apples with Sunburn Browning,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 134, No. 1, 2009, pp. 148-155.
[78] D. A. Felicetti and L. E. Schrader, “Changes in Pigment Concentrations Associated with the Degree of Sunburn Browning of ‘Fuji’ Apple,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 133, No. 1, 2008, pp. 27-34.
[79] A. J. Winkler, J. A. Cook, W. M. Kliewer and L. A. Lider, “General Viticulture,” University of California Press, Berkeley, 1974.
[80] M. D. Greenspan, K. A. Shackel and M. A. Matthews, “Developmental Changes in the Diurnal Water Budget of the Grape Berry Exposed to Water Deficits,” Plant Cell Environment, Vol. 17, No. 7, 1994, pp. 811-820. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.1994.tb00175.x
[81] L. M. McFadyen, R. J. Hutton and E. W. R. Barlow, “Effects of Crop Load in Fruit Water Relations and Fruit Growth in Peach,” Journal of Horticultural Science, Vol. 71, No. 3, 1996, pp. 469-480.
[82] L. C. Ho, R. I. Grange and A. J. Picken, “An Analysis of the Accumulation of Water and Dry Matter in Tomato Fruit,” Plant, Cell and Environment, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1987, pp. 157-162.
[83] A. Lang and M. R. Thorpe, “Xylem, Phloem and Transpiration Flows in a Grape: Application of a Technique for Measuring the Volume of Attached Fruits to High Resolution Using Archimedes Principle,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 40, No. 219, 1989, pp. 1069-1078. doi:10.1093/jxb/40.10.1069
[84] A. Lang, “Xylem, Phloem and Transpiration Flows in Developing Apple Fruits,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 41, No. 6, 1990, pp. 645-651. doi:10.1093/jxb/41.6.645
[85] H. Cook and K. J. Oparka, “Movement of Fluorescein into Isolated Caryopses of Wheat and Barley,” Plant, Cell and Environment, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1983, pp. 239-242.
[86] J. S. Pate, P. J. Sharkey and C. A. Atkins, “Nutrition of a Developing Legume Fruit. Functional Economics in Terms of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 59, No. 3, 1977, pp. 506-510. doi:10.1104/pp.59.3.506
[87] J. Tilbrook and S. D. Tyerman, “Hydraulic Connection of Grape Berries to the Vine: Varietal Differences in Water Conductance into and out of Berries, and Potential for Backflow,” Functional Plant Biology, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2009, pp. 541-550. doi:10.1071/FP09019
[88] B. R. Bondada, M. Keller and G. Hall, “Compositional and Anatomical Characterization of SOUR Berry. Proceedings of the International GiESCO Symposium,” Davis, CA, 2009.
[89] M. G. McCarthy, “The Effect of Transient Water Deficit on Berry Development of cv. Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.),” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1997, pp. 102-108. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0238.1997.tb00128.x
[90] S. G. S. Hatfield and M. Knee, “Effects of Water Loss on Apple in Storage,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1988, pp. 575-583. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb01043.x
[91] G. Vogg, S. Fischer, J. Leide, E. Emmanuel, R. Jetter, A. A. Levy and M. Riederer, “Tomato Fruit Cuticular Waxes and Their Effects on Transpiration Barrier Properties: Functional Characterization of a Mutant Deficient in a Very-Long-Chain Fatty Acid/3-Ketoacyl-CoA Synthase,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 55, No. 401, 2004, pp. 1401-1410. doi:10.1093/jxb/erh149
[92] F. Bioletti, “Blackmeasles, Waterberries and Related Troubles,” California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, Vol. 358, 1923, pp. 1-15.
[93] R. Theiler, “Anotomische Untersuchungen an Traubenstielen im Zusmmenhang mit der Stiell?hme,” Wein-Wiss, Vol. 25, 1970, pp. 381-417.
[94] G. Brendel, F. Stellwaag-Kittler, et al., “Die Patho-Physiologischen Kriterien der Stiell?hme,” Mitt Klosterneuburg, Vol. 33, 1983, pp. 100-104.
[95] E. R. Capps, “The Relationship between Mineral Nutrition and Late-Season Bunch Stem Necrosis of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes,” MS Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 1999.
[96] J. C. Morrison and M. Lodi, “The Influence of Water Berry on the Development and Composition of Thompson Seedless Grapes,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 41, No. 4, 1990, pp. 301-305.
[97] B. P. Hills and B. Remigereau, “NMR Studies of Changes in Subcellular Water Compartmentation in Parenchyma Apple Tissue during Drying And Freezing,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1997, pp. 51-61. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2621.1997.00381.x
[98] D. K. Salunke and B. B. Desaie, “Postharvest Biotechnology of Fruits,” Vol. 1, CRC Press, Florida, 1984, pp. 95-109.
[99] Q, Sun, T. L. Rost, M. S. Reid and M. A. Matthews, “Ethylene and Not Embolism Is Required for Wound-Induced Tylose Development in Stems of Grapevines,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 145, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1629-1636. doi:10.1104/pp.107.100537
[100] A. N. Kasimatis, “Some Factors Influencing the Development of Water Berries in Thompson Seedless Grapes Grown for Table Use,” MS Thesis, University of California, Davis, 1957.
[101] M. C. Okimoto, “Anatomy and Histology of the Pineapple Inflorescence and Fruit,” Botanical Gazette, Vol. 110, No. 2, 1948, pp. 217-231. doi:10.1086/335530
[102] A. J. McElrone, J. A. Grant and D. A. Kluepfel, “The Role of Tyloses in Crown Hydraulic Failure of Nature Walnut Trees Afflicted by Apoplexy Disorder,” Tree Physiology, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2010, pp. 761-772. doi:10.1093/treephys/tpq026
[103] P. Christensen and J. Boggero, “A Study of Mineral Nutrition Relationships of Waterberry Relationship in Thompson Seedless,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1985, pp. 57-64.
[104] D. I. Jackson, “Environmental and Hormonal Effects on Development of Early Bunch Stem Necrosis,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1991, pp. 290-294.
[105] D. I. Jackson and B. G. Coombe, “Early Bunchstem Necrosis—A Matter of Nomenclature,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 46, No. 4, 1988, pp. 579-580.
[106] M. Krasnow, M. A. Matthews and K. A. Shackel, “Evidence for Substantial Maintenance of Membrane Integrity and Cell Viability in Normally Developing Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Berries throughout Development,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 59, No. 4, 2008, pp. 849-859. doi:10.1093/jxb/erm372
[107] L. C. Ho and J. D. Hewitt, “Fruit Development,” In: J. G. Atherton and J. Rudich, Eds., The Tomato Crop, Chapman and Hall, UK, 1986, pp. 201-240. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-3137-4_5
[108] Q. T. Ho, B. E. Verlinden, P. Verboven and B. M. Nicola?, “Gas Diffusion Properties at Different Positions in the Pear,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2006, pp. 113-120. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2006.04.002
[109] K. A. Shackel, C. Greve, J. M. Labavitch and H. Ahmadi, “Cell Turgor Changes Associated with Ripening in Tomato Pericarp Tissue,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 97, No. 1, 1991, pp. 814-816. doi:10.1104/pp.97.2.814
[110] T. R. Thomas, M. A. Matthews and K. A. Shackel, “Direct in Situ Measurement of Cell Turgor in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Berries during Development and in Response to Plant Water Deficits,” Plant, Cell and Environment, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2006, pp. 993-1001. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2006.01496.x
[111] M. G. McCarthy and B. G. Coombe, “Is Weight Loss in Ripening Grape Berries cv. Shiraz Caused by Impeded Phloem Transport?” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1999, pp. 17-21. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0238.1999.tb00146.x
[112] T. R. Thomas, K. A. Shackel and M. A. Matthews, “Mesocarp Cell Turgor in Vitis vinifera L. Berries throughout Development and Its Relation to Firmness, Growth, and the Onset of Ripening,” Planta, Vol. 228, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1067-1076. doi:10.1007/s00425-008-0808-z
[113] S. J. Kays and R. E. Paull, “Postharvest Biology,” Exon Press, Athens, 2004.
[114] B. G. Coombe and M. G. McCarthy, “Dynamics of Grape Berry Growth and Physiology of Ripening,” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2000, pp. 131-135. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0238.2000.tb00171.x
[115] W. M. Kliewer and L. A. Lider, “Effects of Day Temperature and Light Intensity on Growth and Composition of Vitis vinifera Fruits,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 95, 1970, pp. 766-769.
[116] D. H. Greer and C. Weston, “Heat Stress Affects Flowering, Berry Growth, Sugar Accumulation and PHOTOSYNTHESIS of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon Grapevines Grown in a Controlled Environment,” Functional Plant Biology, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2010, pp. 206-241. doi:10.1071/FP09209
[117] W. M. Kliewer, “Effect of Day Temperature and Light Intensity on Concentration of Malic and Tartaric Acids in Vitis vinifera L. Grapes,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 96, 1971, pp. 372-377.
[118] H. Steffan and A. Rapp, “Ein Beitragzum Nachweis Unterschiedlicher Malatpools in Beeren der Rebe,” Vitis, Vol. 18, 1979, pp. 100-105.
[119] C. Sweetman, L. G. Deluc, G. R. Cramer, C. M. Ford and K. L. Soole, “Regulation of Malate Metabolism in Grape Berry and Other Developing Fruits,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 70, No. 11-12, 2009, pp. 1329-1334. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.08.006
[120] P. Lobit, M. Genard, P. Soing and R. Habib, “Modelling Malic Acid Accumulation in Fruits: Relationships with Organic Acids, Potassium, and Temperature,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 57, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1471-1483. doi:10.1093/jxb/erj128
[121] M. S. Buttrose, C. R. Hale and W. M. Kliewer, “Effect of Temperature on the Composition of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ Berries,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1971, pp. 71-75.
[122] H. P. Ruffner, “Metabolism of Tartaric and Malic Acids in Vitis: A Review—Part A,” Vitis, Vol. 21, 1982, pp. 247-259.
[123] F. M. DuPont, “Effect of Temperature on the Plasma Membrane and Tonoplast ATPases of Barley Roots. Comparison of Results Obtained with Acridine Orange and Quinacrine,” Plant Physiology, Vol. 89, No. 4, 1989, pp. 1401-1412. doi:10.1104/pp.89.4.1401
[124] N. Terrier, F. X. Sauvage, A. Ageorges and C. Romieu, “Changes in Acidity and in Proton Transport at the Tonoplast of Grape Berries during Development,” Planta, Vol. 213, No. 1, 2001, pp. 20-28. doi:10.1007/s004250000472
[125] H. P. Ruffner, D. Possner, S. Brem and D. M. Rast, “The Physiological Role of Malic Enzyme in Grape Ripening,” Planta, Vol. 160, No. 5, 1984, pp. 444-448. doi:10.1007/BF00429761
[126] W. M. Kliewer and L. A. Lider, “Influence of Cluster Exposure to the Sun on the Composition of Thompson Seedless Fruit,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1968, pp. 175-184.
[127] J. M. Tarara, J. Lee, S. E. Spayd and C. F. Scagel, “Berry Temperature and Solar Radiation Alter Acylation, Proportion, and Concentration of Anthocyanin in Merlot Grapes,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 59, No. 3, 2008, pp. 235-247.
[128] C. R. Parra, L. M. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Salinas and G. G. Giraldo, “The Effect of Hail and Wind on the Development and Quality of the Fruits of Dominico Harton and FHIA-21 Plantain,” Info Musa, Vol. 10, 2001, pp. 13-17.
[129] C. R. Hale, “Relation between Potassium and the Malate and Tartrate Contents of Grape Berries,” Vitis, Vol. 16, 1977, pp. 9-19.
[130] K. Takimoto, K. Saito and Z. Kasai, “Conversion of Tartarate to Malate and Monoethyl Tartarate in Grape Leaves,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 16, No. 11, 1977, pp. 1641-1645. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(71)85061-6
[131] K. Takimoto, K. Saito and Z. Kasai, “Diurnal Changes in Tartarate Dissimilation during the Ripening of Grapes,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Vol. 15, No. 6, 1976, pp. 927-930.
[132] W. Wienhaus, “Reaktionen in Organen der weinrebe auf Applikation von Stoffwechselhemmstoffen und Entkopplern wahrend der Reifephase,” Vitis, Vol. 12, 1973, pp. 105-118.
[133] N. Ollat and J. P. Gaudillère, “Investigation of Assimilate Import Mechanisms in Berries of Vitis vinifera var. ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 427, 1996, pp. 141-149.
[134] C. Davis, R. Shin, W. Liu, M. R. Thomas and D. P. Schachtman, “Transporters Expressed during Grape Berry (Vitis vinifera L.) Development Are Associated with an Increase in Berry Size and Berry Potassium Accumulation,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 57, No. 12, 2006, pp. 3209-3216. doi:10.1093/jxb/erl091
[135] M. A. Matthews and V. Nuzzo, “Berry Size and Yield Paradigms on Grapes and Wines Quality,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 754, 2007, p. 423.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.