Pelleting Diets Impairs TRAMP Prostate Carcinogenesis

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:407KB) PP. 212-226
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.82014    594 Downloads   676 Views  


Diets rich in soy products may reduce the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Daidzein, the major isoflavone present in soy germ, can be metabolized by the gut microbiota into equol. The effects of daidzein and equol on PCa have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding 2% soy germ, 92 ppm daidzein, or 88 ppm equol diets on the progression of PCa in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. 3-week old male C57BL/6 X FVB TRAMP mice were weaned from our breeding colony and immediately acclimated to an AIN-93G control diet for one week. At 4 weeks of age, mice (n = 30 per diet group) were randomized to one of four pelleted study diets until 18 weeks of age. Unexpectedly, we did not detect any statistical differences in cancer incidence between diets. We suggest that these results are due to the physical attributes of the pelleted diets in the current study. Mice fed pelleted diets had reduced food intake and significantly decreased body weights (p < 0.001) compared to previous studies. A reduction in food intake is known to reduce cancer incidence in a number of cancer models and is likely to have contributed to the decrease in expected cancer incidence in the current study. In conclusion, we suggest that the hardness of the diets pellets could result in a decreased cancer incidence in TRAMP mice.

Cite this paper

Conlon, L. , Wallig, M. and Erdman, J. (2017) Pelleting Diets Impairs TRAMP Prostate Carcinogenesis. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 8, 212-226. doi: 10.4236/fns.2017.82014.


[1] [1]Pudenz, M., Roth, K. and Gerhauser, C. (2014) Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention. Nutrients, 6, 4218-4272.
[2] Messina, M., Nagata, C. and Wu, A.H. (2006) Estimated Asian Adult Soy Protein and Isoflavone Intakes. Nutrition and Cancer, 55, 1-12.
[3] Zuniga, K.E., Clinton, S.K. and Erdman, J.W. (2013) The Interactions of Dietary Tomato Powder and Soy Germ on Prostate Carcinogenesis in the TRAMP Model. Cancer Prevention Research, 6, 548-557.
[4] Bohn, T., Blackwood, M., Francis, D., Tian, Q., Schwartz, S.J. and Clinton, S.K. (2013) Bioavailability of Phytochemical Constituents from a Novel Soy Fortified Lycopene Rich Tomato Juice Developed for Targeted Cancer Prevention Trials. Nutrition and Cancer, 65, 919-929.
[5] Setchell, K.D.R., Nardi, E., Battezzati, P.M., Asciutti, S., Castellani, D., Perriello, G. and Clerici, C. (2013) Novel Soy Germ Pasta Enriched in Isoflavones Ameli-orates Gastroparesis in Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study. Diabetes Care, 36, 3495-3497.
[6] Clerici, C., Nardi, E., Battezzati, P.M., Asciutti, S., Castellani, D., Corazzi, N., Giuliano, V., Gizzi, S., Perriello, G., Di Matteo, G., Galli, F. and Setchell, K.D. (2011) Novel Soy Germ Pasta Improves Endothelial Function, Blood Pressure, and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 34, 1946-1948.
[7] Tiziani, S. and Vodovotz, Y. (2005) Rheological Characterization of a Novel Functional Food: Tomato Juice with Soy Germ. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 7267-7273.
[8] Ahmad, A., Biersack, B., Li, Y., Bao, B., Kong, D., Ali, S., Banerjee, S. and Sarkar, F.H. (2013) Perspectives on the Role of Isoflavones in Prostate Cancer. AAPS Journal, 15, 991-1000.
[9] Mahmoud, A.M., Yang, W. and Bosland, M.C. (2014) Soy Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Molecular Mechanisms. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 140, 116-132.
[10] Sugiyama, Y., Masumori, N., Fukuta, F., Yoneta, A., Hida, T., Yamashita, T., Minatoya, M., Nagata, Y., Mori, M. Tsuji, H., Akaza, H. and Tsukamoto, T. (2013) Influence of Isoflavone Intake and Equol-Producing Intestinal Flora on Prostate Cancer Risk. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 14, 1-4.
[11] Akaza, H., Miyanaga, N., Takashima, N., Naito, S., Hirao, Y., Tsukamoto, T., Fujioka, T., Mori, M. Kim, W.J., Song, J.M. and Pantuck, A.J. (2004) Comparisons of Percent Equol Producers between Prostate Cancer Patients and Controls: Case-Con-Trolled Studies of Isoflavones in Japanese, Korean and American Residents. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 34, 86-89.
[12] Atkinson, C., Frankenfeld, C.L. and Lampe, J.W. (2005) Gut Bacterial Metabolism of the Soy Isoflavone Daidzein: Exploring the Relevance to Human Health. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 230, 155-170.
[13] Lund, T.D., Munson, D.J., Haldy, M.E., Setchell, K.D.R., Lephart, E.D. and Handa, R.J. (2004) Equol Is a Novel Anti-Androgen That Inhibits Prostate Growth and Hormone Feedback. Biology of Reproduction, 70, 1188-1195.
[14] Setchell, K.D.R. and Clerici, C. (2010) Equol: History, Chemistry, and Formation. Journal of Nutrition, 3, 1355-1362.
[15] Setchell, K.D.R., Brown, N.M. and Lydeking-Olsen, E. (2002) The Clinical Importance of the Metabolite Equol—A Clue to the Effectiveness of Soy and its Isoflavones. Journal of Nutrition, 132, 3577-3584.
[16] Griffith, A.P. and Collison, M.W. (2001) Improved Methods for the Extraction and Analysis of Isoflavones from Soy-Containing Foods and Nutritional Supplements by Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromoatography and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 913, 397-413.
[17] Berman-Booty, L.D., Sargeant, A.M., Rosol, T.J., Rengel, R.C., Clinton, S.K., Chen, C.S. and Kulp, S.K. (2012) A Review of the Existing Grading Schemes and a Proposal for a Modified Grading Scheme for Prostatic Lesions in TRAMP Mice. Toxicologic Pathology, 40, 5-17.
[18] Gown, A.M. and Willingham, M.C. (2002) Improved Detection of Apoptotic Cells in Archival Paraffin Sections: Immunohistochemistry Using Antibodies to Cleaved Caspase 3. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, 50, 449-454.
[19] Liao, Z., Boileau, T.W., Erdman, J.W. and Clinton, S.K. (2002) Interrelationships among Angiogenesis, Proliferation, and Apoptosis in the Tumor Microenvironment During N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea Androgen-Induced Prostate Carcinogenesis in Rats. Carcinogenesis, 23, 1701-1711.
[20] Bonorden, M.J., Rogozina, O.P., Kluczny, C.M., Grossmann, M.E., Grambsch, P.L., Grande, J.P., Perkins, S., Lokshin, A. and Cleary, M.P. (2009) Intermittent Calorie Restriction Delays Prostate Tumor Detection and Increases Survival Time in TRAMP Mice. Nutrition and Cancer, 61, 265-275.
[21] Prasad, A.S., Mukhtar, H., Beck, F.W., Adhami, V.M., Siddiqui, I.A., Din, M., Hafeez, B.B. and Kucuk, O. (2010) Dietary Zinc and Prostate Cancer in the TRAMP Mouse Model. Journal of Medicinal Food, 13, 70-76.
[22] Tsuchiya, M., Niijima-Yaoita, F., Yoneda, H., Chiba, K., Tsuchiya, S., Hagiwara, Y., Sasaki, K., Sugawara, S., Endo, Y., Tan-No, K. and Watanabe, M. (2014) Long-Term Feeding on Powdered Food Causes Hyperglycemia and Signs of Systemic Illness in Mice. Life Sciences, 103, 8-14.
[23] Ramirez, I. and Friedman, M.I. (1990) Dietary Hyperphagia in Rats: Role of Fat, Carbohydrate, and Energy Content. Physiology & Behavior, 47, 1157-1163.
[24] Desmarchelier, C., Ludwig, T., Scheundel, R., Rink, N., Bader, B.L., Klingenspor, M. and Daniel, H. (2013) Diet-Induced Obesity in Ad Libitum-Fed Mice: Food Texture Overrides the Effect of Macronutrient Composition. British Journal of Nutrition, 109, 1518-1527.
[25] Ford, D.J. (1977) Influence of Diet Pellet Hardness and Particle Size on Food Utilization by Mice, Rats and Hamsters. Laboratory Animals, 11, 241-246.
[26] Oka, K., Sakuarae, A., Fujise, T., Yoshimatsu, H., Sakata, T. and Nakata, M. (2003) Food Texture Differences Affect Energy Metabolism in Rats. Journal of Dental Research, 82, 491-494.
[27] Llaverias, G., Danilo, C., Wang, Y., Witkiewicz, A.K., Daumer, K., Lisanti, M.P. and Frank, P.G. (2010) A Western-Type Diet Accelerates Tumor Progression in an Autochthonous Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer. American Journal of Pathology, 177, 3180-3191.
[28] Suttie, A.W., Dinse, G.E., Nyska, A., Moser, G.J., Goldsworthy, T.L. and Maronpot, R.R. (2005) An Investigation of the Effects of Late-Onset Dietary Restriction on Prostate Cancer Development in the TRAMP Mouse. Toxicologic Pathology, 33, 386-397.
[29] Suttie, A., Nyska, A., Haseman, J.K., Moser, G.J., Hackett, T.R. and Goldsworthy, T.L. (2003) A Grading Scheme for the Assessment of Proliferative Lesions of the Mouse Prostate in the TRAMP Model. Toxicologic Pathology, 31, 31-38.
[30] Huffman, D.M., Johnson, M.S., Watts, A., Elgavish, A., Eltoum, I.A. and Nagy, T.R. (2007) Cancer Progression in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Mouse Is Related to Energy Balance, Body Mass, and Body Composition, but notFood Intake. Cancer Research, 67, 417-424.
[31] Liu, A.G., Juvik, J.A., Jeffery, E.H., Berman-Booty, L.D., Clinton, S.K. and Erdman, J.W. (2014) Enhancement of Broccoli Indole Glucosinolates by Methyl Jasmonate Treatment and Effects on Prostate Carcinogenesis. Journal of Medicinal Food, 17, 1177-1182.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.