Naturally human beings live in settlements, and through the recognition of the distribution pattern of these settlements, the distribution of the population can be identified, which is implemented as an effective factor for seeking balanced development. Therefore, the distribution of population and native settlements with maps are very important issues because they represent the final outcome between the elements of the human and natural environment. The importance of this study merges from the importance of Makkah Al-Mukarramah area among all other areas of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in terms of the weight of population (as the last estimates based on the results of the general census of population and housing in 1431/2010 AD): the population is 7,026,805 habitants, spread over eleven provinces in addition to the headquarters in (Makkah Al-Mukarramah); the region’s total area is 140,814 square kilometers. It also merges from religious significance for the city of Makkah Al-Mukarramah. The study followed the descriptive and analytical approaches; in addition, it used cartographic representation method, and it had depended on the data and information obtained from the Department of Statistics publications, and other government authorities, and data and maps from published research related to the subject of the study. The results of the study revealed the geographical distribution pattern of both native settlements and population of each province via the natural and human factors affecting facilitating the knowledge of the huge disparity of the distribution which gave light for recommendations built at the end the study.