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Climate and Epidemiology of Malaria in Port Harcourt Region, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.41004    2,868 Downloads   3,616 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The study examines the effect of climate on the occurrence of malaria in Port Harcourt. To achieve this, the study adopted the survey designs which involved the use of archival data of climate parameters and the survey of hospitals for epidemiological data of malaria cases reports within Port Harcourt and environs. The archival weather data on temperature and rainfall were collected from the Nigeria Meteorological Service Agency (NIMET) for a period of sixty-five (65) years (1950-2014), and those for medical records of malaria cases were extracted from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospitals (UPTH), Braithwaite Memorial Hospital (BMH) and some renowned private hospitals in Port Harcourt and environs for a period of sixty-five (65) years. The multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relative effect of rainfall and temperature on malaria incidence. The polynomial and linear trend analysis was used for the trend pattern of malaria cases, rainfall and temperature. The results revealed an annual rainfall of 2375 mm, with an increase of 1581 mm of rainfall from 1950 till date. It also showed an urban warming of 3°C from 1950 to 2014, and a mean of 27.2°C in temperature in Port Harcourt. The results of the multiple regression reveal that the prevalence of malaria is significantly dependent on the increase in rainfall and temperature in Port Harcourt. There are double maxima of malaria cases with 1006 cases in July and 1540 cases in September, which coincide with the months with double rain maxima. On this premise and health care planning and development, it is recommended that regular clearing of drains and the surrounding environment on monthly basis should be intensified, as well as the distribution of mosquito’s insecticide net by the three tier of government.

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Weli, V. and Efe, S. (2015) Climate and Epidemiology of Malaria in Port Harcourt Region, Nigeria. American Journal of Climate Change, 4, 40-47. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.41004.

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